Recent Resources for Feminists
Australia: Mothers bear the brunt of teenage boy's domestic violence in Victoria Print E-mail

 Melbourne ~ Friday December 8 2017

Quarter of all youths committing family violence are boys bashing their mums

By Tammy Mills

Mothers of teenage boys are often bearing the brunt of violent attacks in their family home.

In the past year, there were 7000 young perpetrators of family violence in Victoria.
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Video: Victorian budget 2017: Tough on crime
The centrepiece of this year's budget was investment in domestic violence protection. Crime reporter Nino Bucci explains.

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A quarter of those were men and boys – aged 19 and under – who offended against their mother.

Now, family violence perpetrators will be treated as seriously as those who commit crimes such as terrorism and murder under a new Victoria Police strategy.

Family violence investigation units will mirror major crime squads with specialist detectives targeting repeat offenders and analysts and psychologists working to predict escalating behaviour before women and children are seriously injured or murdered.

Acting Chief Commissioner Shane Patton said the consequences of family violence are the same as terrorism, and it should be viewed with the same gravity.

"The ramifications are the same in the long run. We have death, we have serious trauma, we have serious injury and we have people impacted for the rest of their lives," Mr Patton said.


It signifies another shift forward in police strategy that began with former chief commissioner Christine Nixon in the early 2000s, and moved from awareness-raising and myth-busting to reforming how uniformed officers respond. .

The investigations units, which will operate in a similar way to the sexual offending and child investigation abuse teams (called SOCITs), will replace the family violence teams at 34 of the state's busiest stations over the next two years, police said.

Current family violence teams consist of members rotated from the uniform branch who are not trained detectives.


The investigation units will also be integrated into the multi-disciplinary centres at Geelong, Dandenong and Werribee.

The centres already bring together SOCITs, sexual assault counsellors and child protection workers into the one building.

The units aim to complement the family violence taskforce, which work statewide and target the most serious repeat offenders, and cold case family violence crimes.


The force's latest research, compiled as part of the new strategy, has found:
?    In the past six years, more than 11,000 perpetrators harmed three or more victims.
?    Almost 1500 had five or more victims and were responsible for family violence, sex offences and child abuse.
?    Women and girls are the victims in 75 per cent of cases.
?    There were 16 family violence murders in 2016-17, making up 28 per cent of homicides.


Funding for the 415 police and unsworn employees is through the government's community safety strategy.

Police Minister Lisa Neville called it a key milestone in the under-reported crimes of family violence, sex offences and child abuse.

India: 33 years on, Bhopal victims of Union Carbide poisoning wait in vain for due recompense Print E-mail

 Sunday December 03, 2017

Thirty three years of Bhopal tragedy

DH Web Desk:
 
: Members of Sambhavana Trust Clinic, which provide medical assistance to gas affected along with Children of survivor of gas victims during a candle light vigil to pay tributes to the people killed in gas tragedy, on 33rd anniversary of gas disaster in Bhopal on Saturday. (PTI)

It has been 33 years since Bhopal witnessed one of the largest industrial disasters in the world. On December 2, 1984, 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) leaked from a tank at the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC). MIC is used for producing carbamate pesticides, which are used in gardens and for agricultural purposes as well.

The Madhya Pradesh government's statistics show 3,787 died immediately. According to an affidavit filed in the Supreme Court by the Centre on October 26, 2006, more than 5.5 lakh people were injured. As per organisations, at least 20,000 have died over the years.

The medical management guidelines for methyl isocyanate published by the agency for toxic substances and disease registry says, "Methyl isocyanate is irritating and corrosive to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. Acute exposure to high vapor (vapour) concentrations may cause severe pulmonary edema and injury to the alveolar walls of the lung, severe corneal damage, and death. Survivors of acute exposures may exhibit long-term respiratory and ocular effects. Methyl isocyanate may be a dermal and respiratory sensitiser."

Even now, controversies over the reason for the disaster and compensation have not ended. Many are of the view that the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985, was not successful in meeting its objectives.

UCC paid $470 million in compensation in a settlement reached with the Union government, mediated by the Supreme Court of India.

"The unjust Settlement of 14/15.02.1989 was a complete sham with each gas victim being finally awarded less than one-fifth of the sum allotted even as per the terms of the settlement. As a result, the gas victims have had to wage concerted struggles in their quest for medical relief and rehabilitation, compensation, environmental remediation and justice," read a joint statement of Bhopal Gas Peedith Mahila Udyog Sangathan and Bhopal Gas Peedith Sangharsh Sahayog Samiti on Saturday.

Allegations of an improper judicial process have also been raised. The charges against Keshub Mahindra and six others (Union Carbide officials) were "diluted" from culpable homicide to rashness and negligence in 1996. They were convicted in 2010.

Allegations were also levelled against the Rajiv Gandhi government for "helping" Warren Anderson, CEO of UCC to leave India soon after the disaster. After he left the country, he was charged with culpable homicide. Requests for extradition was rejected by the US. Anderson died in 2014.
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 Sunday December 03, 2017

33 years on, Bhopal gas tragedy survivors still await adequate payout

The abandoned Union Carbide factory in Bhopal. (PTI file)

Bhopal: Thirty-three years after the Bhopal gas tragedy, survivors are still fighting for adequate compensation and proper medical treatment for ailments caused by the toxic leak.

Families of the deceased and people, who bore the brunt of the industrial disaster, are now signing a petition, to be sent to the Supreme Court, requesting it to start hearing a curative petition of the government filed in December 2010 for more compensation.

The US company which then owned the chemical plant here, from where the poisonous gas leaked in 1984, has not yet adequately compensated the victims, a Madhya Pradesh minister said.

The victims of the “world’s worst disaster” had not been paid adequately by US-based Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) now owned by Dow Chemicals, MP’s Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Minister Vishwas Sarang said.

He alleged that the then Central government led by the Congress was more interested in helping the multi-national company rather than bringing it to book.

“The Central and the state governments, both led by the Congress, helped the then UCC chairman, Warren Anderson, who had come to Bhopal after the tragedy, to escape to the US,” Sarang claimed.

He said the curative petition seeks compensation of more than Rs 1,000 crore from the UCC (now owned by Dow) for the welfare of the victims.

Abdul Jabbar, the convenor of the Bhopal Gas Peedith Mahila Udyog Sanghathan, who has been working for the survivors for over three decades, said the UCC gave a compensation of USD 470 million (Rs 715 crore) after the toxic gas leak from the Union Carbide factory on the intervening night of December 2-3, 1984, killed 3,000 people and affected 1.02 lakh others.

“We all challenged the meagre compensation in the Supreme Court saying that the number of victims was ‘too high’ and the compensation given by Union Carbide was ‘too small’ in 1989,” Jabbar said.

He added that the claim courts for the tragedy started work in Bhopal in 1990 and completed it by 2005.

The Rs 715 crore-compensation was paid to the families of 15,274 deceased and 5.74 lakh affected by the leak, he said.

Jabbar said the signature campaign for more compensation was launched by those whose health had been affected by the gas leak.

“We moved the apex court again in 2005 saying that the number of victims had swelled five fold,” Jabbar said.

On December 3, 2010, the Centre and the state government filed a curative petition in the apex court seeking more compensation for the victims from UCC, Jabbar said.

“But nothing has happened after that. So now the sufferers are signing the petition, with a request to the Supreme Court to hear the curative petition and decide the matter at the earliest,” he added.

The survivors were suffering from many diseases, including cancer, tumours and lung problems, caused by the inhalation of the poisonous gas three decades ago, he said.

“They are not getting proper medical care as they don’t have money,” Jabbar said.

He accused the Congress government and the BJP-led NDA rule of not doing enough to bring Anderson to book.

“Anderson escaped from the country after the Congress government as the Centre buckled under US pressure in 1984,” he claimed.

The CBI, when the NDA was in power in 2002, tried to “dilute the charges” against Anderson which made the extradition of the US national difficult, he added.

On June 7, 2010, a Bhopal court convicted seven executives of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) to two years’ imprisonment in connection with the incident.

Anderson was the prime accused in the case but did not appear for the trial. On February 1, 1992, the Bhopal CJM court declared him an absconder.

The courts in Bhopal had issued non-bailable warrants against Anderson twice­in 1992 and 2009.

Anderson died in September, 2014. PTI
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 Sunday December 03, 2017

Bhopal gas tragedy: 33 yrs on, survivors still await adequate compensation

The US company, which then owned the chemical plant in Bhopal, has not yet adequately compensated the victims

PTI

Families of the deceased and survivors are now signing a petition, to be sent to the Supreme Court, requesting it to start hearing a curative petition of the govt filed in Dec 2010 for more compensation. (Photo: PTI/File)

Bhopal: Thirty-three years after the Bhopal gas tragedy, survivors are still fighting for adequate compensation and proper medical treatment for ailments caused by the toxic leak.

Families of the deceased and people who bore the brunt of the industrial disaster are now signing a petition, to be sent to the Supreme Court, requesting it to start hearing a curative petition of the government filed in December 2010 for more compensation.

The US company, which then owned the chemical plant in Bhopal, from where the poisonous gas leaked in 1984, has not yet adequately compensated the victims, a Madhya Pradesh minister said.

The victims of the "world's worst disaster" had not been paid adequately by US-based Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) now owned by Dow Chemicals, MP's Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Minister Vishwas Sarang told PTI.

He alleged that the then Central government led by the Congress was more interested in helping the multi-national company rather than bringing it to book.

"The Central and the state governments, both led by the Congress, helped the then UCC chairman, Warren Anderson, who had come to Bhopal after the tragedy, to escape to the US," Sarang claimed.

He said the curative petition seeks compensation of more than Rs 1,000 crore from the UCC (now owned by Dow) for the welfare of the victims.

Abdul Jabbar, the convenor of the Bhopal Gas Peedith Mahila Udyog Sanghathan, who has been working for the survivors for over three decades, said the UCC gave a compensation of USD 470 million (Rs 715 crore) after the toxic gas leak from the Union Carbide factory on the intervening night of December 2-3, 1984, killed 3,000 people and affected 1.02 lakh others.

"We all challenged the meagre compensation in the Supreme Court saying that the number of victims was 'too high' and the compensation given by Union Carbide was 'too small' in 1989," Jabbar said.

He added that the claim courts for the tragedy started work in Bhopal in 1990 and completed it by 2005.

The Rs 715 crore-compensation was paid to the families of 15,274 deceased and 5.74 lakh affected by the leak, he said.

Jabbar said the signature campaign for more compensation was launched by those whose health had been affected by the gas leak.

"We moved the apex court again in 2005 saying that the number of victims had swelled five fold," Jabbar said.

On December 3, 2010, the Centre and the state government filed a curative petition in the apex court seeking more compensation for the victims from UCC, Jabbar said.

"But nothing has happened after that. So now the sufferers are signing the petition, with a request to the Supreme Court to hear the curative petition and decide the matter at the earliest," he added.

The survivors were suffering from many diseases, including cancer, tumours and lung problems, caused by the inhalation of the poisonous gas three decades ago, he said.

"They are not getting proper medical care as they don't have money," Jabbar said.

He accused the Congress government and the BJP-led NDA rule of not doing enough to bring Anderson to book.

"Anderson escaped from the country after the Congress government as the Centre buckled under US pressure in 1984," he claimed.

The CBI, when the NDA was in power in 2002, tried to "dilute the charges" against Anderson which made the extradition of the US national difficult, he added.

On June 7, 2010, a Bhopal court convicted seven executives of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) to two years' imprisonment in connection with the incident.

Anderson was the prime accused in the case but did not appear for the trial. On February 1, 1992, the Bhopal CJM court declared him an absconder.

The courts in Bhopal had issued non-bailable warrants against Anderson twice -- in 1992 and 2009.

Anderson died in September, 2014.
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 Sunday December 03, 2017

Survivors hold a march on Bhopal Gas Tragedy anniversary

Survivors hold a march on Bhopal Gas Tragedy annivrsary

Bhopal: A large number of Bhopal gas tragedy survivors on Saturday marched, holding burning torches in hand, to a memorial of the world's worst industrial disaster on its 33rd anniversary this evening here.

They paid homage to those who died in the tragedy at the memorial statue in front of the now-defunct Union Carbide factory.
 

Leaders of five survivors' organisations, Rashida Bi, Nawab Khan, Balkrishna Namdeo, Satinath Sarange, Rachna Dhingra and Sarit Malviya, addressed the gathering, and demanded adequate compensation, clean-up of hazardous waste lying in the factory premises, rehabilitation of survivors and exemplary punishment for Union Carbide and Dow Chemical (which later took over Union Carbide).

The two-km march from Sindhi Colony to the factory was organised by five NGOs -- Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Stationery Karmachari Sangh, Bhopal Gas Peedit Nirashrit Pensionbhogee Sangharsh Morcha, Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Purush Sangharsh Morcha, Bhopal Group for Information and Action and Children Against Dow /Carbide.

Toxic gas, which leaked from Union Carbide's pesticide factory in Bhopal on the intervening night of December 2-3, 1984 killed over 3,000 people and maimed thousands of others. PTI

UK: England & Wales infamously triple the highest rape count in the European Union Print E-mail
 Friday November 24 2017

Rape figures for England and Wales highest in EU

Richard Ford, Home Correspondent

There were 35,700 rapes recorded in England and Wales in 2015 (ANNA GOWTHORPE/PA)

The number of rapes recorded by police in England and Wales is the highest in the EU, according to official figures published yesterday.

Almost three times more rapes were recorded than in France, the country with the second highest number.

Figures from Eurostat, the official statistics organisation of the EU, showed there were 35,700 rapes in England and Wales in 2015, compared with 12,900 in France, just over 7,000 in Germany and 5,500 in Sweden. Overall about 215,000 violent sex crimes were recorded in the EU.

The number of rapes relative to population was also highest in England and Wales, at 62 per 100,000 inhabitants, followed by Sweden on 57. In France the figure was 19 and in Germany 8.6.

Recorded rapes have risen in recent years because of improvements in the way police deal with claims, which have encouraged victims to report attacks, and a rise in recorded historical sex abuse after the Jimmy Savile scandal.

Eurostat said: “It should be borne in mind that the figures do not necessarily reflect the actual number of violent sexual crimes. Rather they show to what extent such crimes are reported to and recorded by police. Therefore the variation between countries is also influenced by general awareness and attitudes to sexual violence offences.” In Germany until last year an act was considered to be rape only if the victim had defended themselves; simply saying “no” was not sufficient.

The End Violence Against Women Coalition said: “It is likely that police practices and wider cultural attitudes to rape affect the willingness to report it.

“There has been some effort made in England and Wales over the past decade to improve the police and prosecution service’s response and, as such, it is possible that England and Wales have something to be proud of in having one of the highest reporting rates.”

The figures were released as the Office for National Statistics published a study showing that an estimated 1.9 million adults aged between 16 and 59 had been victims of domestic abuse in the year to March. About 1.2 million of them were women, according to estimates from the Crime Survey of England and Wales. Such incidents account for a third of recorded crime.

There were 454 domestic homicides between April 2013 and March last year, with 319 of the victims being women. Some 242 of the female victims were killed by a male partner or former partner. Two thirds of the male victims were killed by another man.

Although the estimated number of incidents of domestic abuse was 1.9 million, only 1.1 million reports of abuse were recorded by police, showing that many victims never go to the authorities.

Suzanne Jacob, from Safelives, a domestic abuse charity, said: “Victims are not ‘hidden’ ­ they’re coming forward in increasing numbers ­ we’re simply not doing enough yet to see them and respond. We hope this new evidence will encourage agencies to work together to see the whole picture, putting in place the best response, at the earliest stage, for all members of the family.”

Louisa Rolfe, National Police Chiefs’ Council lead for domestic abuse, said: “We know that many victims still do not report domestic abuse to us so we are working to give people confidence that police will always act to safeguard victims as a priority, such as through issuing protection orders or working directly with victims’ charities.”

Global: Domination of oceans by corporate fishing vessels adds to burdens faced by women fisherfolk Print E-mail
 Thursday 24 November 2017
 

How Ocean Grabbing is Threatening the Livelihoods of Women Fishworkers

Making a living from selling fishes is getting harder as the seas are now dominated by huge corporate fishing vessels.


By Surangya Kaur

(Credits: I for Detail/Flickr)

With climate change and rapid privatization of the seas and oceans, small-scale fisherpeople are being denied food sovereignty and their right to livelihood. As this happens, fisher-women are suffering even more. They already face discrimination and lack of access to basic facilities, and as ocean grabbing increases, women are burdened further.

Women traditionally do not go deep into sea waters for catching fish. They are involved in fishing in lakes and nearshore waters in some countries and islands. A majority of women fish workers, however, engage in pre-harvest and post-harvest work. This includes collecting and preparing bait, mending nets and boats before the harvest, and processing and selling of fishes after they are caught.


Fish vending employs more women than men in India. According to Marine Fisheries Census of 2010, nearly 81.8% of the fisherfolks engaged in marketing of fish were women.

But making a living from selling fish is getting harder. The seas are now dominated by huge corporate fishing vessels, making it hard for the small-scale fisherfolk to access fish. The women who are making a living by selling procured fish are not able to get fish anymore, taking their income away.

Fish-working women in Kenya and other African countries involved in selling fish often face violence when they go out to harbours for procuring. In many cases, men demand sex in exchange for fish, a practice known as “sex-for-fish”.
 
Video: Sex-For-Fish Trade in Kenya - Christiana Louwa, World Forum of Fisher Peoples

Women also procure fish such as prawns from shores around mangrove forests. But mangroves are increasingly facing destruction. In Sunderbans, there was an oil spill in 2014, which killed aquatic life in the waters around it. Many aquaculture grounds are being constructed around mangroves which pollutes them. This leads to fish dying or migrating. As mangroves are being destroyed, the livelihood of women who rely on them is being threatened.
 
Video: Women Contribute to Half of All Production in Fisheries, But Not Recognised by Governments

Women constitute about 47 percent of fish workers, accounting for around 56 million jobs along the fisheries supply chain.(World Bank, 2012). But they are still facing great obstacles in getting recognition for their contribution. The work they perform in fisheries is mostly disregarded as an extension of housework, and not recognised in official statistics.

The fight for better rights for women has been a part of the larger struggle for the conservation of small-scale fisheries. In the 7th General Assembly of the World Forum of Fisher Peoples held in Delhi last week, the problems affecting women fish workers were discussed. Delegates from more than 40 countries came for these discussions and demanded national and international attention.

Nawal El Saadawi: Collective [feminist] efforts empower to overcome political & economic oppression Print E-mail
 14th November 2017

(sister-hood is an award-winning digital magazine spotlighting the diverse voices of women of Muslim heritage)
Also at:  Sunday November 19 2017

 Flickr / Jeanne Menjoulet
 

A letter to young feminists

by Nawal El Saadawi
 
I was asked to write a letter to younger generations of feminists and to give them my advice. I hate to give advice. I think nobody can 'advise' anybody else. We learn from our own experiences in our own lives. We pay the price of knowledge and awareness through physical and intellectual pain. We cannot learn without pain. We cannot liberate ourselves without paying the price of freedom. We cannot be creative without paying the price of creativity. The price may be high: prison, exile or even death.

But I do not advise young women or men to die or go to prison in order to be free and change the system of oppression. We can minimize the price of freedom by working and fighting together. Collective efforts through social and political organisations give power to powerless people, who are facing organized military, political and economic powers, at the state level and internationally.

1. Unveil your mind

We live in a world governed by power (not justice) under the capitalist, patriarchal, racist, religious system. The most oppressed sectors of society are women and the poor, who have refused to submit to slavery since the beginning of history.

Reading history illuminates and helps us to discover the origin and roots of patriarchy and other types of oppression and aggression. We need to undo what official educational systems did to us and unveil our minds by re-reading the ancient civilisations of Egypt, Iraq, Greece and others, to understand that the oppression of women and slaves is neither natural, divine nor eternal, but political and economic, and that therefore these can be changed through our collective organised efforts, locally and globally.

Revolutions of women and slaves were able to undermine the power of the patriarchal-class-religious system in every country: West and East, North and South. Every revolution faces a counter-revolution. The struggle goes on. The Egyptian revolution of January 2011 was composed mainly of young men and women. They were able to remove Hosni Mubarak, the head of state. They could not, however, change the capitalist-patriarchal system ruling the country. They did not undermine the power of the Islamic fanatic terrorist groups, and the global colonising powers which were supporting them, openly and secretly.

2. Connect, link and challenge
We need to link the global to the local. I like the new word 'glocal' which shows that we live in one world, not three or four, and that the global and the local are inseparable. I was born, and live in Egypt, but I have travelled all over the world during my years of exile to speak at conferences and teach my course, 'Creativity and Dissidence' at universities. I made the link between creativity and dissidence. You cannot be obedient and creative. I changed the concept of exile from a punishment to a reward. I gained knowledge from living in different countries and different cultures. We can overcome any hard or painful situation by making it fruitful and pleasurable, by changing the negative experience into a positive one.

I was able to survive prison. Every day, the jailer would inspect my cell and shout 'If I find paper and a pen in your cell, it will be more dangerous than if I find a gun.' I was able to smuggle a small eyebrow pencil and some toilet paper into my cell. I was able to hide them underground in a tin can. Every night, I brought them into my cell and wrote. In three months of being in jail I finished my book entitled Memoirs From The Women's Prison which I published after I was released. I felt as if the walls of prison vanished through the challenge and power of creative writing. If I have to give advice to younger generations I can tell them this: if you can transform a negative experience into a positive one, you can survive any torture or oppression.

I am living surrounded - physically and intellectually - by young women and men who read my books or attend my lectures inside and outside Egypt. They write emails to me, or phone me, or visit me at home. With their support I gather the energy to continue fighting and writing, and, above all, to continue to be happy, active, optimistic and productive. Hope is power and I never lose hope. Even in prison I was full of hope, and sure that I would come out alive, healthy and even more creative, and that Anwar Sadat, the president of Egypt who had put me in jail, would soon fall. My prison-mates did not believe it. He was powerful, wealthy and healthy. But he was shot dead just one month after putting us in jail.

I feel young amongst young people, although I am now seventy-eight years old. You can change the concept of age, and of time and place, of loneliness and divorce, of disease or even death.

3. Lose the fear of hellfire
We have illusions and fear inherited from early childhood. I lost the fear of hellfire because my father and mother told me there was no hellfire. Many children lose their common sense because of the fear of hellfire. Most children are born intelligent and creative. They look up to the stars and ask who created them. Parents reply, 'God created the stars'. The child then asks automatically, 'And who created God?' But nobody answers this question. Another child asks, 'Who created the sky and the earth?’ The teacher replies, 'God created the whole universe.' The child then asks automatically, 'And what did God do before creating the universe?' Now the teacher gets angry and says, 'He was preparing hellfire to burn whoever asks that question'. Many children stop asking questions after that.

My daughter and son asked questions from a very young age. I never stopped them. Some schoolteachers discouraged them with threats of hellfire, but I talked to the teachers and they stopped threatening my children. We should not leave the brains of our children to be crippled by fear. My daughter, Mona Helmy, gained a PhD in political economy but she resigned from her post to become an independent writer and poet. She published many books and led a youth campaign to give due respect to mothers in family naming traditions. Her campaigning helped to change the law. My son, Atef Hetata, graduated with honours from the college of Engineering but left this career to become a film director. He wrote and directed the feature film The Closed Doors which has won many prizes nationally and internationally. Both my son and daughter have paid a high price for their creativity and dissidence - but they continue to struggle, and they never give up.

4. Don't give up
This is my advice to younger generations, men and women all over the world. Many young feminists were disappointed after Donald Trump came to power in the USA, and after many other fiercely capitalist, patriarchal and racist figures like him took power in Europe and other places. We hear about terrorist attacks everywhere. In Egypt, some of the young feminists who participated in the January 2011 revolution in Tahrir Square are disappointed and have lost hope. They think the revolution has failed because of the backlash against women and progressive and feminist ideas and activities. But if we read the history of revolutions in France, Britain, Russia, America and other countries, we learn that the dreams of any revolution may take many years (or even centuries) to come true. In spite of the increasing counter-revolutions everywhere, and the growth of Salafi and Islamist groups, the daily attacks of Daesh and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, people never give up. Those who fight for justice and freedom will succeed in the end.

We need to change the conception of success. It is not money, nor fame, nor power: it is the ability to make the world a better place to live in. It is the ability to fail, to fall to the ground, but to stand up again and again, and continue the struggle. Failure is not a negative experience; it can be positive, if we can learn that failure is the first step to success.

~~~~~~~~~~~
Nawal El Saadawi is an internationally renowned Egyptian writer, novelist, medical doctor and fighter for women rights.

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