Scroll down to also read of the country's "Education Emergency" and early 2013 promises of "Education for every girl"
Although the literacy rate in Pakistan has increased over the years but because of high population growth, the absolute number of illiterates has increased. (White Star)
Education is considered a fundamental human right and an essential ingredient for individual as well societal development. Article 37-B of the Constitution of Pakistan, given under the heading ‘Promotion of social justice and removal of social evils’ reads as follows:
The state shall “remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period.”
Recently, under the 18th amendment, a new sub-clause 2-A, pertaining to Right to Education has been added, which reads: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to 16 years in such manner as may be determined by law.”
In addition to these constitutional provisions, Pakistan is also signatory to many international treaties and conventions which obligate it to provide equal access to education to all of its citizens without any discrimination on the basis of gender, race and ethnicity. Apart from other indirect provisions, two important conventions are worth mentioning: the 1990 Jomtien World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) and the Dakar Framework for Action 2000.
The Jomtien Conference reaffirmed the right of every person to receive education, which satisfies his or her basic learning needs. This declaration announced the six goals of EFA, which are to be achieved by the year 2015. These EFA goals include expanding early childhood care and education; providing free and compulsory primary education for all; promoting learning and life skills for young people and adults; increasing adult literacy by 50 per cent from the level of 1990; achieving gender parity by 2005 and gender equality by 2015; and improving the quality of education for all.
The Dakar Framework of Action (Senegal, 2000) was adopted in which the international community once again recognised illiteracy as a priority issue; it set a number of goals to be achieved by the year 2015. By signing these two documents, the international community, including Pakistan, affirmed their commitment to eradicate illiteracy within a stipulated period of time. It is believed that illiteracy not only hinders the development of individuals’ full potential and their participation in a democratic society, but also has repercussions for the rest of their lives. It affects personal and family life of the individuals, deprives them of the benefits of development and hinders the enjoyment of other human rights.
The Dakar Framework of Action not only announced eight goals, commonly known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) pertaining to various aspects of human life, but also set measurable targets and indicators to monitor progress of the societies in this direction. Out of these goals, two exclusively relate to education.
Goal two pertains to achieving universal primary education, and the relevant target reads “ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling by 2015”. Attainment of this target requires an increase in the net enrolment ratio of children at the primary level and improving the completion rate of primary schooling.
Goal three encourages the international community to promote gender equality and empower women; it reads “eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and at all levels by 2015”. Achievement of this target requires improving the ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education.
Twenty-three years down the road since the declaration of EFA, and just about two years away from the target year 2015, it is high time to assess Pakistan’s achievement and progress in this direction, particularly with reference to universal education and gender parity. According to MDGs, Pakistan was expected to achieve 100pc net primary enrolment rate by 2015 and 100pc completion/survival rate to Grade V by the same year.
In terms of literacy, it was expected to achieve overall 88pc literacy rate for 10+ years aged population. To achieve steady progress in this regard, Pakistan announced three education policies in 1992, 1998 and 2009 and a number of development plans, including National Plan of Action 2001-2015 and Education Sector Reforms (ESR).
These policies and plans set different dates to achieve the millennium development goals. The National Plan of Action on EFA (2001-2015) declared to achieve increase on the following indicators by 2005.
Literacy from 49pc to 60pc:
Net primary enrolment from 66pc to 76pc
Middle school enrolment from 47.5pc to 55pc
Secondary school enrolment from 29.5pc to 40pc
Higher education enrolment from 2pc to 5pc
The Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-2010 set the target to achieve 77pc net primary enrolment ratio, 80pc completion/survival rate to Grade V and 77pc overall literacy rate for 10+ years population by 2010. Similarly, in terms of gender equality, Pakistan was expected to achieve full gender equality in primary enrolment ratio as well as youth literacy by the year 2015. The relevant target set under MTDF was to achieve 0.94 Gender Parity Index (GPI) for primary enrolment and 0.85 GPI for youth literacy.
The analysis of available data reveals that progress of Pakistan toward achieving the MDGs is not only unsatisfactory; rather highly disappointing. We are not only far away from achieving these goals by 2015 rather under the current pace of development these goals seem to be totally unachievable.
Although the literacy rate in Pakistan has increased over the years but because of high population growth, the absolute number of illiterates has increased. At present, the literacy rate of 10+ age population as well and the net enrolment rate at the primary level is about 58 and 68pc respectively, with higher gender disparity index in literacy rate than in primary enrolment rate.
The overall literacy rate is higher in Punjab and Sindh, with lowest in Balochistan. Similarly, the lowest literacy and enrolment rates are observed in the female population in Balochistan. The achievement of MDGs requires an expansion of primary education opportunities for children and reducing the drop-out rate. In post-9/11 era, Pakistan received a lot of aid for various sectors, including education. There was a huge campaign of increasing educational opportunities for different age population.
However, the available statistics about primary schooling in Pakistan reveals a negative trend. This is particularly true for female literacy rate in the country. As discussed earlier, to fulfil the commitments made by the government of Pakistan for achieving MDGs, Pakistan was expected to achieve full gender equality in primary enrolment ratio as well as youth literacy by the year 2015.
However, literacy figures recently released by the Unesco Institute for Statistics reveal that absolute number of female illiterates has risen from 31,101,011 in 2005 to 32,106,848 in 2009. That is, about one million females were added to the illiterate lot. On the other hand, it is encouraging to note that there was a decrease of about 0.6 million in the number of male illiterates during the same period. However, this has resulted in an increase in gender disparity.
This is mainly because of the faulty education policies during the previous regime. Available data indicates that during the Musharraf government, instead of expanding primary education in the public sector, the number of primary schools decreased from 159,330 in 1998-99 to 156,400 in 2009-10. His government implemented a devolution plan and accordingly the primary, middle and secondary education was devolved to the district governments. This was done on the pretext that the decentralisation process would enable the district governments to effectively manage the education system. However, the devolution policy resulted in decreasing the enrolment rate, especially in the public-sector schools and closure of about 3,000 schools during the last decade.
Primary schools are the basic unit of education and an important instrument for imparting literacy and basic education. These figures also reveal that despite increase in primary age population, primary schools were not increased proportionately. Instead, higher expansion in middle and secondary schools was achieved. Against about 29pc increase in the primary school population, about 2pc decrease in the number of primary schools has been observed during the same period.
If the same trend is continued, this will be in total defiance of the MDGs and Pakistan will never be able to achieve the MDGs’ targets, particularly in the case of the female population. Taliban are condemned for eroding female schools in Fata, Swat and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, but what if the government does the same thing in the name of rationalisation policy or uses other pretext to close public schools?
Education for all, gender balance, better equipped educational institutions, new uniform curriculum and much more. Will the PTI be able to achieve its ambitious education goals? By Tahir Ali
As per its commitment during elections, the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf-led Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government has declared education emergency and planned various initiatives to improve education standard in the province.
The main focus of new projects is to ensure education for all, create a gender balance and fulfil the requirements of educational institutions regarding staff, equipment, furniture, teachers training and essential repairs. It also intends to devise a new uniform curriculum in the near future.
A working group comprising education experts, coalition partners and education administrators deliberated on the problems of education sector and prepared its elaborate recommendations for the sector.
The budget for both the elementary and secondary education (E&SE) and higher education has been increased to Rs29.7 billion against Rs22.12 billion in 2012 with the E&SE being the biggest beneficiary, accounting for Rs24 billion in the total ADP of Rs118 billion.
KP Chief Minister, Pervez Khan Khatak, says schools will be run by Management Councils comprising parents of students, local bodies’ members, elders of the localities, teachers and former students of schools. “It is a revolutionary step, first of its kind in the country. Teachers’ progress will be conditioned with the result of their students,” he adds.
A Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Education Commission is being formed with eminent education experts as its members who would work for uniform curriculum, transparent examination system and education for all.
For efficient and proper monitoring of schools and offices, a modern monitoring system is being developed comprising 500 impartial monitors with an expenditure of Rs500 million. It will also be supported by a third party monitoring system.
Female education administrative officers will get 50 per cent of their basic pay as incentive in six less developed districts for one year which will be made permanent if teachers’ attendance and performance improve.
Some other schemes include ‘Chief Minister’s Endowment Fund’ for sponsoring higher education of needy students and Iqra Education Promotion Scheme’ for poor children both of Rs500 million each; Expansion of Rokhana Pakhtunkhwa Public-Private-Partnership in Education Programme of Rs800 million; ‘Education Fund’ for establishing private school in areas having no public schools worth Rs500 million; the ‘Stori da Pakhtunkhwa’ initiative worth Rs360 million and increase in the number of beneficiaries from 10 to 20 position holders for all boards of intermediate and technical education.
The E&SE department has asked all the heads of schools to give their demands for staff, furniture, books, funds and other requirements immediately. These, according to an official, will be fulfilled before August 31st.
“The government has asked us to repair and whitewash all the rooms, lavatories and boundary walls around the schools. Water availability must be ensured. We were also asked to get telephone and internet connections and the government says IT teachers and labs will be provided in all schools,” according to a school principal.
Clusters: “To improve standard of education in public sector schools, clusters have been formed wherein 6 primary and 2-3 middle schools will be given under the supervision of one principal or head master of a high or higher secondary school. The latter will be responsible for monitoring the attendance and working of teachers and will also serve as their salary drawing and disbursement officers,” he said.
“CM Khattak, in his first assembly address, had asked teachers to improve upon their performance or face the music. But education standard could hardly be improved in a situation where schools lack teachers, books, and labs. Also, the head masters/principals will have to be empowered to take appropriate action against the staff found negligent in duties. And political intervention will also have to be eradicated,” added the principal.
Management of a school requires strong commitment and sustained and fullest attention towards it on part of the principals. “We’ll have to monitor the schools, report to district education officers of any irregularity and ask the district accounts officer to issue/stop payment to teachers and other staff at the cluster schools which will consume a lot of our time. Monitoring of schools will take much time especially when there is no transport facility available. Those having no vehicle would either avoid or only nominally do the monitoring job. They should be given vehicles or sufficient travelling allowance. Then, principals and head masters should have vice-principal and assistant head masters at schools,” he said.
Curriculum change: The PTI government also wishes to change the curriculum. KP E&SE Minister Atif Khan has given a tentative date of March 2014 to enforce uniform curriculum across the province.
The diverse curriculum taught in the public and private sectors and ‘religious’ madaris has divided the nation in water-tight compartments. To promote national cohesion, moderation and tolerance in our society, uniform curriculum is the need of the hour.
Curriculum change is, however, an arduous process that requires strong will and competence on part of executers, billions of rupees, lot of time and mutual consultations and spirit of compromise between coalition partners and stakeholders, political stability and support from the federal government. Will the PTI be able to successfully cope with these issues?
As KP is dependent on federal transfers and donor funding for implementation of its plans and projects, it will have to approach donor agencies like World Bank, USAID, Asian Development and UK’s DFID and the Agha Khan Foundation. Donor agencies are ready to finance the process but they want due representation in the working groups and the committees for the purpose. They would also attach some strings to their support.
The Jamat-e-Islami has been vocal in opposing heavy presence of donor agencies personnel in working groups and authoritative role for them in the process. It fears that giving too much leverage to the donor agencies would give them enough powers to exclude religious contents from syllabi which would be unacceptable. But beggars, after all, can’t be choosers.
While the JI presses for all-encompassing religious contents in curriculum, donor agencies may consider it an attempt to spread extremism.
Curriculum from first to intermediate level was changed by the previous ANP provincial government and the process was to complete in next academic year. The ANP had to face severe opposition from the JI, then in opposition but now a coalition partner in the PTI-led government.
There is still ambiguity whether or not seminaries and their boards and the private schools chains would be included in the process. And whether it’ll be done by banning private schools or by privatising public schools?
There will be opposition from certain quarters. “The elite class and their private education systems, the text book commission mafia and incompetent teachers would resist the move,” a professor said, adding that the government should implement the curriculum in stages.
Hitches The PTI wishes to introduce uniform curriculum, increase state spending on education to five per cent of GDP, reduce the dropout rate at elementary level by offering incentives, encourage greater public-private partnership in qualitative improvement and quantitative expansion of education. But there are many hitches.
Ghost schools, teachers absenteeism, outdated teaching techniques, low admission and high dropout ratio, dilapidated school buildings with no facilities, outdated curriculum, flawed examination system, faulty monitoring system, indifference of teachers and administrators, overcrowded classrooms, weak supervision, mounting political interference and little attention and resources to developing teachers’ competencies, etc., are some of the main problems in the sector. Without removing these, any hope for improvement in the system will only be wishful thinking.
Teachers’ competencies should be the main focus as high quality teachers are the most important factor in a child’s education. With computer based learning tools, educational institutions can provide the supportive productive environment teachers need to reach, teach, and support each student’s learning needs and potential.
But the KP’s provincial assembly was informed last year that only around 300 high and higher secondary schools in KP had computer labs while around 2000 lacked computer labs and 4,500 computer teachers were needed.
While the government says it will achieve millennium development goals in the educations sector by the end of 2015, KP MDGs Report-2011 says they are unlikely to be achieved in KP by then. The net primary enrolment ratio in 2011-12 was 67 per cent and the Primary Completion Rate and Literacy Rate stands at 67 per cent and 50 per cent against the targets of 100 and 88 respectively.
There should be a mandatory uniform national curriculum from class one to twelve. At the intermediate level, all the students in the country should take a federal examination on the pattern of developed countries.
Like other parties, the Jamaat-e-Islami also places emphasis on education for all to woo voters By Javed Aziz Khan
Almost all the political parties have announced their election manifestos with claims to bring revolutionary reforms into the system and make Pakistan a model state. The season of claims and promises is on and political parties are trying something new to attract more voters and get their sympathies for election candidates.
Most of the political parties are claiming to give top priority to education once they come into power in the country. There are claims of establishing more universities, upgrading the already existing institutions with providing them all the basic facilities and setting up more primary schools to improve the literacy rate.
The Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) has also announced its election manifesto recently with more emphasis on educating every child with quality education for free.
“Our slogan is Ilaj, taleem, rozgar har fard kay leye….Saaf pani, bijli aur gas har ghar kay leye (health, education and job for every individual and clean water, electricity and gas for every house),” says deputy chief of the Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Sirajul Haq.
Siraj, who has served as senior minister in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal government, is of the opinion that this is the responsibility of the state to provide free quality education to its people.
The JI is more focused on education for girls and want to launch educational emergency in the country for this purpose. “We want to launch educational emergency in the country so that every girl gets education because an educated female can prepare a better nation,” says Sirajul Haq, who headed Islami Jamiat Talaba, a student wing of the JI, for years. He stresses for arrangements so that every girl can get higher and professional education without any harm to culture as well as local and Islamic values.
The Jamaat-e-Islami wants a law that could penalise parents for not sending their children to schools. “We want the private educational institutions should work in partnership with the government. Private schools, colleges and universities should not be an industry but it should be part of the mission to educate the Pakistani nation,” says Sirajul Haq.
The JI was part of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a six-party alliance of the religious groups that ruled the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province between 2002 and 2007. The MMA was part of the opposition in the center during the five years. In 2008 general elections, the component parties of the MMA parted ways. The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazl, the largest party in the MMA, and other parties contested the polls while the JI boycotted the last general elections.
The Jamaat is contesting the coming general elections without forming any alliance with religio-political groups. It has, however, started negotiations with various political groups for seat adjustment in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other parts of the country.
Besides improving the education standards, the JI manifesto has a number of targets to achieve after winning the general elections. “We want to make Pakistan an Islamic welfare state. Our model is the Islamic state established in Madina where people will rule the country and there will be no difference between a common man and a ruler,” says Sirajul Haq.
In the sector of education, the party wants changes in the syllabus as its leadership believes that every year changes are made in the curriculum on foreign pressure. He believes that primary education would improve if the nation starts giving respect to teachers.
“We will develop a system under which a student will be required to choose his profession after 12th grade. After intermediate level, every student will be given education in a specialised field so we can produce more specialists in every field,” says the JI deputy central chief.
As a religio-political party, the JI wants to bring reforms in the seminary system too. “We want to develop a system in seminaries where a student graduating from these institutions would have adequate knowledge of literature, science, computer and other required fields. We also want to introduce one system for all the religious schools in the country so that no one could trigger any sectarian issue,” says Sirajul Haq. He says there are five different boards of the religious schools all over the country which have thousands of schools affiliated with them. “We will bring reforms and introduce one standard course for these schools after consulting heads and senior members of all the five boards. This will help end sectarian differences.”
Some JI leaders are running modern seminaries while others are supervising few chains of regular schools with a touch of religious education all over the country. The party is having a student wing which is organised in most of the universities and colleges of the country. The student wing arranges educational related activities on regular basis.
The JI has floated a novel idea of planting one tree by every student. “A student will be asked to plant a tree and take care of it. This way, we will have millions of trees planted every year to help us improve the environment,” Siraj suggests.
“Our government in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa had established a female university and a medical college so that female students could get higher and professional education without any difficulty. We also established 61 new colleges and recruited 46,000 teachers on merit. There was no college in Kohistan and other remote areas, but we established colleges and schools there. If we come into power, we will establish a separate university, medical college and engineering college in Fata,” says the JI deputy amir.
“We will increase the budget for education from 2 per cent to 11 per cent so we are not left behind India and Bangladesh,” says Sirajul Haq.
The writer is senior reporter of The News at Peshawar and can be contacted
and followed on twitter @JavedAzizKhan
Does the presence of disability mean the absence of rights? Divya Sreedharan reports on how hysterectomies are often forced on disabled women. Scroll down for link to the “Draft Disabilities Bill“ and media report “Panel prepares draft to secure rights of people with disabilities”
Farheena was just 10 and a half when she attained puberty. Doctors asked her mother Farida Rizwan to do a hysterectomy on Farheena. To stop her periods. Because Farheena is a special needs child she has cerebral palsy.
“I was told the hysterectomy would help avoid hygiene issues during menstruation,” says Rizwan, who lived in Byndoor, a coastal town in Udupi, Karnataka, at the time. Other parents nearby had removed the uterus of their own young, disabled daughters. Rizwan refused. “I asked doctors about the side effects of such a surgery on someone so young. I never got an answer,” she says.
Farheena is 18 today, lives in Bangalore with her mother and brother, and attends a special needs school. She is active on Facebook, plays on her mother's iPad, and manages her menstrual cycle on her own. “It took a while but I showed her how to use sanitary napkins, made her understand menstruation. She freaked out at first but with time the fear has gone,” says Rizwan.
The 2001 Census says there are 9.3 million disabled women in India. Farheena is one of them. She is luckier than most because her mother fights for her right to live with dignity. India is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2007, which guarantees all intellectually disabled women “the right to full bodily integrity”. But it is common practice to conduct hysterectomies or sterilisations on mentally challenged girls, both by parents and by state agencies in government-run homes or shelters.
Denying basic rights According to Shampa Sengupta, Director, Sruti Disability Rights Centre, Kolkata, forcible hysterectomies are a violation of human rights, apart from legal, moral and ethical rights. “It’s a denial of a woman's basic right her right to bear a child”. What happens when girls as young as 9 or 12 are sterilised? There is no specific study in the Indian context but the Hysterectomy Association in the UK lists some of the risks as pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, depression and back pain.
The practice of forced hysterectomies became public in 1994, when they were found being conducted on mentally challenged women between the ages of 18 and 35 at Sassoon General Hospital, Pune. A 1994 article in the British Medical Journal said “...health authorities claim consent was given by the women's parents or other lawful guardians and that the operations were done to maintain the women's hygiene during menstruation...” The same reason was cited in 2008 by the Maharashtra government seeking to conduct hysterectomies on 300-odd women in five government homes.
This, in the face of guidelines laid down in the early 1990s by the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics that recommended setting up a qualified panel to examine the girls. The guidelines stressed that “hysterectomy in the absence of a conscientious effort at helping the woman to maintain personal hygiene cannot be justified”.
What can such panels actually achieve? Says Akhil Paul, Director of Sense International India, an Ahmedabad NGO that works with deaf-blind children and adults: “The panel can only take action if a complaint is made.”
The real picture But what’s worse is what’s left unspoken. Hysterectomies are often carried out, as Sengupta notes, so that the girl does not become pregnant if abused. It’s a larger conspiracy where parents and society stay silent about the abuse; and about the hysterectomies or abortions after the abuse. Says Paul, “Often, the abusers are people who meet them everyday. Auto drivers, rickshaw wallahs, family and peers.”
Do hysterectomies then merely perpetuate the sexual abuse of the disabled? Last July, a young woman's body was found buried within the compound of the NGO Dulal Smriti Samsad in West Bengal. It was that of Guriya, a mentally-ill destitute woman. The Home, although registered under the Persons with Disabilities Act, the National Trust Act and the Juvenile Justice Act, was not monitored by any agency. Sengupta was one of those who investigated the incident. “Many women had been subjected to routine sexual abuse, some even had Copper-Ts (contraceptive) inserted in their bodies,” she says.
And what happens when the abuser is a family member, a father, sibling, family friend or uncle? “Many doctors speak of carrying out hysterectomies on the request of the girls' mothers. My own gynaecologist has told me of a disabled girl brought in by the mother for an abortion. Some mothers know their daughters are being abused but keep quiet,” Sengupta says.
Farida Rizwan, though, has vowed not to keep quiet. She is fully aware of how vulnerable her daughter is. “One day, Farheena told me her classmate (a girl) had grabbed her breast. Farheena knew this was wrong because I have taught her about 'good' touch and 'bad' touch. But what about the girl who touched her? Someone must be abusing her which is why she touched my daughter inappropriately. Who will help that girl?” she asks. Award-winning blogger Rizwan is vocal on the issue of the rights of the disabled, and one thing she is sure of: “Removing her uterus will not protect my daughter”.
Silent Conspiracy India's Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 is silent on the subject of violence towards and sexual exploitation of disabled girls and women. Now, a Draft Disabilities Bill is ready. It strongly advocates:
The right of women and girls with disabilities to be protected from all forms of abuse, violence and exploitation.
Protection in all settings including homes, care-homes, educational institutions, and workplaces.
Safe, accessible complaint mechanisms to report abuse, exploitation, and violence
Setting up gender-, disability- and age-sensitive protection services. And full support for the survivors of abuse.
Panel prepares draft to secure rights of people with disabilities
NEW DELHI,: Unhappy with the Government’s inability to come up with a holistic legislation for disabled persons, the Disabled Rights Group (DRG) has come up with the draft of a comprehensive law that seeks to provide access to properties, including securing the rights of inheritance of people with disabilities. If required, legal aid may be provided to persons with disabilities, to protect their rights on property.
Based on “all rights of all persons with disabilities with a framework for accountability”, the proposed draft, Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2012, seeks to repeal the existing four laws on disabilities, to avoid multiplicity of authority and duplicity of institutions, Javed Abidi of the Disabled Rights Group, told The Hindu .
The draft puts on the government the responsibility of developing strategies and schemes to help persons with disabilities to attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability, and full inclusion and participation in all aspects of life. The comprehensive rehabilitation services and programmes, particularly in the areas of health, employment, education and social services, will be available to persons with disabilities in the communities they live, and will extend to the rural areas as well. Products and technology to guarantee participation will comply with the standards and norms, as outlined in the accessibility strategy.
The Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, the Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992, the National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999, and the Mental Health Act, 1987, are the four existing laws.
“There is no synchrony between the various legislations that will impact the lives of persons with disability, and complete dissonance between the proposed Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill and the proposed Mental Health Care Bill brought out by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare,” DRG told the Union Social Justice and Empowerment Minister, Mukul Wasnik, while presenting the draft on Wednesday.
The government will make sure that persons with disability can, and will, effectively participate in political and public affairs on an equal basis with people, including the right and opportunity for persons with disability to vote and be elected, form and join organisations of persons with disability to represent people with disability at international, national, regional and local levels. Reasonable accommodation shall be provided in all cases where persons with disabilities exercise their right to franchise, the draft suggests.
The appropriate government shall make sure that every person with disability shall be entitled to support in decision-making, which would help the person to exercise legal capacity with safeguards to implement his/her will, the draft says, while saying that the mechanisms for providing support in decision-making shall be developed by the Disability Equality Commission.
A person with disability, who is denied the services, or faces discrimination in accessing any services and the facilities, shall be at liberty to make a complaint before the Grievance Redressal Committee.
In cases where a person with disabilities is of the opinion that he/she is unable to comprehend and/or retain the information that is required to make a decision, support may be sought by that person in arriving at that decision. The person may contact the Disability Support Officer, to seek such support, which will make sure that the person gets support to help him/her to arrive at a decision according to his/her will.
In extreme situations, where it is felt that a person with disabilities is unable to comprehend and/or retain information to make a specific decision, despite all support options being provided, total support for the said decision for a fixed period of time may be provided by the Committee.
There is a provision for the constitution of the ‘Disability Equality Commission’ to develop mechanisms to provide support to persons with disabilities, to live within their own families or independently. ******* Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2012, seeks to repeal the existing four laws on disabilities
Legal aid may be provided to persons with disabilities to protect their rights on property ******* ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Vaccines have not been evaluated for causing infertility (read the vaccine insert).
I have been investigating whether there is a proven link between vaccines and infertility. What I have uncovered will shock many readers because I have discovered that innocent women and girls in developing countries have been deliberately experimented on, with the use of infertility vaccines, for many years.
They are not the only victims. Recently several vaccines used worldwide have also been found to cause infertility, including the HPV vaccines and many of the swine flu vaccines.
My interest in the subject began after it was reported that the Japanese government had decided to withdraw its support for the HPV vaccine schedule. This decision came after the government received approximately 2000 reports from women and girls suffering adverse reactions, including long-term pain, numbness, paralysis and infertility. 
This does not mean that Japan has banned or suspended the program, as the vaccines will still be available to anyone wishing to receive them. However, the medical provider will automatically inform anyone wishing to receive the HPV vaccines Gardasil or Cervarix that the Japanese government no longer supports the HPV vaccine program.
This Shot Changed One Girl’'s Life Forever Over the years, a range of adverse reactions have been reported worldwide after the HPV vaccinations. However, the discovery that the HPV vaccine has been found to cause infertility in some women has only been publicized more recently.
In 2012, the British Medical Journal published a paper by Dr. Deidrie Little titled Premature Ovarian Failure 3 Years After Menarche in a 16 Year-Old Girl Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, in which Dr. Little detailed the case of a sixteen year-old girl suffering from premature menopause after receiving the HPV vaccine Gardasil. The summary of the paper states:
“Premature ovarian failure in a well adolescent is a rare event. Its occurrence raises important questions about causation, which may signal other systemic concerns. This patient presented with amenorrhoea after identifying a change from her regular cycle to irregular and scant periods following vaccinations against human papillomavirus. She declined the oral contraceptives initially prescribed for amenorrhoea. The diagnostic tasks were to determine the reason for her secondary amenorrhoea and then to investigate for possible causes of the premature ovarian failure identified.
Although the cause is unknown in 90% of cases, the remaining chief identifiable causes of this condition were excluded. Premature ovarian failure was then notified as a possible adverse event following this vaccination. The young woman was counselled regarding preservation of bone density, reproductive implications and relevant follow-up. This event could hold potential implications for population health and prompts further inquiry.” 
As the BMJ charges a fee to read their articles, interested readers can find a report about the case on the Weekly Briefing of the Population Research Institute’s website. The report states that Dr. Little said that before the sixteen year-old received the vaccine Gardasil during the fall of 2008, her menstrual cycle was perfectly normal. However, by January 2009, her cycle had become irregular, and over the course of the next two years, her menses (bleeds) had become increasingly irregular. By 2011, she had ceased menstruating altogether.
The Weekly Briefing stated:
“In the Australian case, after testing the levels of numerous hormones, and the function of various internal organs, the girl was diagnosed by Dr. Little as having “premature ovarian failure”, which is defined as “the presence of menopausal gonadotrophin levels in association with over 3 months of amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea before age 40 years.”
Further testing confirmed that all of her eggsevery last onewere dead. She was and is totally and irrevocably infertile.”
The Weekly Briefing article has since been removed, but a complete copy of the article can be found on several websites, including Population Research Institute. 
Thousands of Women Are Now Infertile Because of Vaccines It is extremely unusual for a girl of this age to enter early menopause. So, we must ask ourselves, was it the vaccine that caused her symptoms or was it something else?
I decided to research if there were any other reports or papers on the subject of vaccination and infertility. I was horrified by what I discovered.
I found a total of 56 research papers listed on PubMed relating to contraceptive vaccines, dating as far back as 1977. No doubt a researcher entering a range of different search terms could come up with many more. 
This led me to question whether or not vaccines were being manufactured deliberately to cause infertility. One paper in particular, published in 1989, written by G.P. Talwar and R. Raghupathy titled Anti-Fertility Vaccines appears to suggest that they are. The authors stated:
“Vaccines are under development for the control of fertility in males and females. This review discusses developments in anti-fertility vaccines at the National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.
A single injection procedure for the sterilization or castration of male animals depending on the site at which the injection is given, has passed through field testing and is expected to be on the market in the near future.” 
It is difficult to judge from this abstract whether these vaccines were being developed for use on humans or animals. However, further research has led me to believe that these vaccines were being developed for humans, because not long after this paper was published, vaccines were administered to women and children in a number of countries, including Nicaragua, Mexico, and the Philippines, causing many of them to become infertile.
Why Weren’t Men or Boys Given This “Tetanus” Vaccine? In 1994, the World Health Organization gave many women in developing countries aged between 15 and 45 a tetanus vaccine containing a birth control drug.
An organization known as The Comite became suspicious of the protocols surrounding the vaccines and obtained several vials for testing. It was discovered that some of the vials contained human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a naturally occurring hormone essential for maintaining a pregnancy.
However, when combined with a tetanus toxoid carrier, this vaccine essentially causes a woman’s body to produce antibodies against pregnancy, forcing her body to abort her unborn baby. The ThinkTwice Global Vaccine Institute, reporting on the story, stated:
“In nature the hCG hormone alerts the woman’s body that she is pregnant and causes the release of other hormones to prepare the uterine lining for the implantation of the fertilized egg. The rapid rise in hCG levels after conception makes it an excellent marker for confirmation of pregnancy: when a woman takes a pregnancy test she is not tested for the pregnancy itself, but for the elevated presence of hCG.
However, when introduced into the body coupled with a tetanus toxoid carrier, antibodies will be formed not only against tetanus but also against hCG. In this case the body fails to recognize hCG as a friend and will produce anti-hCG antibodies. The antibodies will attack subsequent pregnancies by killing the hCG which naturally sustains a pregnancy; when a woman has sufficient anti-hCG antibodies in her system, she is rendered incapable of maintaining a pregnancy.” 
Curiously, no men, boys or babies were vaccinated during the program. The only people vaccinated with this particular vaccine were women aged between 15 and 45. Was it a coincidence that these vaccines were only given to women of childbearing age? After all, anyone can contract tetanus, can’t they?
If The Comite had not become suspicious, then no one would have been any wiser. However, the question now remains: Was this a deliberate attempt by the WHO to reduce the population? The answer may lay in a paper written in 1997.
Girls and Women as Fertility Control Guinea Pigs In 1997, another paper by G.P. Talwar titled Vaccines for Control of Fertility and Hormone Dependent Cancers was published by Immunology and Cell Biology. The author stated in the introduction:
“The twentieth century is marked by an unprecedented rise in the population. Four billion people will be added to the world population in 73 years of this century, whereas the global population attained the two billion mark only in 1927. In India, the population increases by 18 million per year, equivalent to the entire population of Australia.
Although a number of methods are available for contraception, they are not suited to many people in economically developing countries and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the contraceptive needs of 350 million couples are unmet.” 
At first glance, it appears that the scientists were trying to develop a vaccine to use as an alternative method of contraception, to be offered at fertility clinics; that is, until you read deeper into the paper.
On page 185 in the section titled Operational Strategy, the author stated:
“Both hCG and LHRH are self hormones in humans and are poor antigens. To improve their immunogenicity, they are derivatized with haptenic groups as followed by Stevens ct al. in their initial studies or they are chemically linked to carriers to enlist T helper cell activity. We used carriers, first tetanus toxoid (TT) and later diphtheria toxoid (DT) or cholera toxin chain B (CTB). Tetanus accounts a large mortality of women at the time of delivery, which in developing countries, often occurs in places other than maternity homes/clinics. TT conjugates conferred immunoprophylactic benefit against tetanus, besides overcoming immunological tolerance to the self hormone. Diversification of carriers on repeat immunization avoided hyperimmunization against a given carrier and carrier-induced immunosuppression.”
Reading on, the section titled Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, reads as follows:
“Human chorionic gonadotropin was a preferred choice as a target for a contraceptive vaccine of three groups of investigators. Although the existence of’ leaky genes making small amounts of hCG in the non-pregnant state has been observed by William Odell. the hormone thus made is not conspicuous in its bioactivity nor appreciable in amount, hCG is a definite marker of pregnancy, when trophoblastic and other tumours are excluded. Its synthesis and secretion begins at the pre-implantation stage, as observed in the vitro-fertilized human embryo. It is involved in implantation since marmoset (south or central American monkey) embryos exposed to anti-phCG antibodies do not implant.’”
The author continued by adding:
“Interception of conception by anti-hCG antibodies is also supported by phase II clinical trials where no lengthening of the luteal phase was observed in women who were protected from becoming pregnant. As pregnancy is deemed to begin only after implantation of the embryo to the endometrium. hCG vaccine by preventing it is not an abortifacient but a contraceptive vaccine. hCG is also required for corpus luteum support and production of progesterone during the first 7 weeks until the placenta takes over. It thus has a role in both establishing and supporting pregnancy. Its chemistry was known by the early 1970s and it could be purified from pregnancy urine.”
These vaccines appear to be strikingly similar to the vaccines that were given to the women in developing countries for tetanus in 1994, just three years earlier, which were also found to contain the hormone hCG.
So, were the women and children living in developing countries in 1994 deliberately experimented on? It certainly appears that they were, as the vaccine trials using the tetanus vaccine on women and girls of childbearing age took place three years before this paper was written.
Another point that should be mentioned here is the fact that these trials were unethical, and yet there is no mention of an ethics committee. Were members of an ethics committee ever consulted before any of these vaccines were administered? Massive Increase in Fetal Deaths After Pregnant Moms Receive Flu Vaccine The tetanus vaccines were given in the 1990s and yet vaccines are said to be causing infertility still today. Other than the HPV vaccines, which I discussed earlier, Fluarix, the vaccine manufactured by GSK against the swine flu, has also been reported to cause infertility. 
In fact, the information given on the prescribing information sheet states that the vaccine has not been evaluated for the impairment of fertility and that it is not known whether Fluarix can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or if it can affect reproduction capacity. 
In other words, it is possible that this vaccine can lead to infertility!
Despite this information being readily available on the Internet, pregnant women are still being recommended to receive various flu vaccines every year.
Documentation received from the National Coalition of Organized Women (NCOW) states that between 2009 and 2010, the mercury-laden combined flu vaccinations increased Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting Systems (VAERS) fetal death reports by 4,250 percent in pregnant women.
Eileen Dannerman from NCOW stated that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) deliberately misled the nation’s obstetricians and gynecologists and colluded with the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AJOG) to mislead the public by advertising the flu vaccine as a safe vaccine for pregnant women when they knew fully well that it was causing a massive spike in fetal deaths.  Conclusion What I have discovered, I am sure that many would agree, is absolutely horrific. It appears that many of the recommended vaccinations are known by the governments and pharmaceutical industries to cause infertility. Many of these vaccines are mandatory. We need to ask ourselves why our governments are deliberately force-vaccinating us with vaccines known to cause infertility.
Another question we need to ask is why are so many studies being funded to study the subject area surrounding vaccines and infertility.
Many leading professionals believe that these vaccines are being offered as part of a global depopulation plan. We need to ask ourselves whether or not our governments have the right to play God with our lives without our knowledge or consent.
I believe it is high time that we took back the control of our own lives and researched all vaccinations thoroughly before we agree to be vaccinated. Ultimately, it is each person’s decision whether or not they should be vaccinated, and the only way that we can make an informed choice about vaccinations is to be fully informed of the facts before agreeing to be vaccinated.
I have proven, by referencing documents, articles and scientific papers, that a series of vaccines are being developed that are known to cause infertility. These vaccines have been and still are being administered to innocent people without their knowledge or consent. Surely, this practice is not only unethical, it is criminal.
Additional Information: To learn more, please read this article on the Natural News website:
New Delhi: While India emerges as a hub for surrogacy, a study released Wednesday says most surrogate mothers are not properly paid or cared for.
The Centre for Social Research says the surrogate mothers are paid only one to two percent of what the commissioning parents pay for a baby (Scroll down to read Centre for Social Research's Press Conference and link to complete report on the subject).
"The commissioning parents pay anything between Rs.40-45 lakh for a surrogate baby, but these women get barely Rs.2-3 lakh," Ranjana Kumari, director of CSR, said.
According to the study, 46 percent of respondents in Delhi and 44 percent in Mumbai said they received Rs.3-4 lakh for surrogacy while 42 percent in Mumbai and 22 percent in Delhi got Rs.2-4 lakh.
Only 26 percent in Delhi said they earned above Rs.4 lakh.
Manasi Mishra, head of the research team which brought out the report, said the women were kept either in hostels or in isolated flats or hotel rooms, out of bounds from their own families.
In many cases, their nutritional or health needs were not taken care of.
"We have seen cases where they have billed the commissioning parents for articles like health drinks but the woman had never even seen a health drink," said Mishra.
"If the woman has a miscarriage or has some health issues after the delivery, she is not taken care of," Mishra added.
The researchers also highlighted that touts or middlemen had a big role in the whole business. Nearly 74 percent of surrogate mothers in Delhi and Mumbai said these agents were their primary source of information.
"According to (estimates), surrogacy is an industry worth $2.3 billion," Ranjana Kumari said. The activists say there is no law on surrogacy.
"Despite the fact that India is becoming a hub for surrogacy, we don't even know if it is legal or illegal because there is no law," Ranjani Kumari said.
"We are not against surrogacy, but the unregulated commercial nature it has acquired is a serious issue," she said.
The study adds that nearly 40 percent of the parents who opt for surrogacy are NRIs or foreigners while 60 percent are Indians. ``````````
The unregulated reproductive tourism industry of ‘procreating’ through surrogacy is burgeoning in India while there is still no legal provision to safeguard the interests of the surrogate mother, the child or the commissioning parents according to a report released here today. The Study -Surrogacy Motherhood: Ethical or Commercial? conducted by Centre for Social Research and supported by the Ministry of Women and Child Development in the years 2011-12, further revealed that though the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Regulation Bill, 2010 did bring forth certain important points for the legal framework to be based on, it has left out many crucial issues relating to surrogacy arrangements.
According to the study, in Delhi & Mumbai, the respondents said that poverty and education of their children was the reason to opt for becoming a surrogate mother. 73.77% of surrogate mothers in Delhi and Mumbai said that the primary source of information for the surrogate mothers was the agents who had approached them for surrogacy.
Surrogate motherhood raises difficult ethical, social and economic issues, which remain unanswered. All these need to be analysed thoroughly before designing any policy relating to surrogacy and making legal provisions. The lack of research on surrogacy poses a problem for Government agencies to initiate legal provisions and take substantive action against those found guilty. Keeping this in mind the Centre for Social Research (CSR) conducted a pilot study on the issue of surrogacy in the areas of Anand, Surat and Jamnagar in Gujarat in the year 2010. After noticing a shifting trend in surrogacy from smaller cities to big metros such as Delhi and Mumbai, which are more easily accessible and provide better health care facilities and anonymity, CSR’s second study focused on these two metros of India which are slowly and steadily rising as surrogacy centers of the world.
Read the complete Report of Surrogacy Motherhood: Ethical or Commercial HERE
Concerns about HPV Vaccine Effectiveness and Efficacy Continue to Mount
by Leslie Carol Botha
Is Gardasil a deadly vaccine? As the author states there are many around the world who are concerned. Janny Stokvis, VAERS analyst has just updated the stats on deaths and adverse events reported to Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Graphs below.
It is estimated that only 1 to 10% of the HPV vaccine injured are reporting. So start adding zeros on to the reports of 140 deaths. And then ask yourself – are the HPV vaccines deadly? For 140 families they are. And that’s just what is being reported.
HPV Vaccine Exposed As Japan Health Authorities Withdraw Recommendation To Vaccinate
by Arjun Dr. Lucija Tomljenovic, PhD with help from her team at the Neural Dynamics Research Group in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of British Colombia, published a paper outlining interesting research regarding the efficacy of the Gardasil vaccines.(1) This is one of many proofs against the efficiency and effectiveness of the Gardasil vaccination, one said to protect girls against cervical cancer and HPV infection.
“The efficacy of Gardasil in preventing cervical cancer has not been demonstrated and the marketing campaign has been misleading. The efficacy of Gardasil remains unsubstantiated since the vaccine hasn’t been adequately tested on the primary age group to which it is currently given. Merck (Gardasil Manufacturer) promoted Gardasil primarily as a vaccine against cervical cancer, rather than promoting it as a vaccine against HPV infection or sexually transmitted disease.”
She points out that malignant cervical cancer takes decades to develop, and the longest clinical trial on Gardasil was only four years in length. Gardasil was never shown to prevent cervical cancer at all. The report also gives reference to Dr. Diane Harper, MD, professor. Dr. Harper has spoken out about the Gardasil vaccine before and she was the one who conducted the phase 2 and phase 3 trials for Gardasil. She authored their publications, and spoke out about how HPV vaccine will do little to decrease the already very small cancer rate. She noted that if women who are vaccinated stop going for Pap smears, the incidence rate for cervical cancer would increase.
Gardasil has been known to have detrimental side effects. A lot of controversy surrounds it, and many around the world believe it to be (in some cases) a deadly vaccine. Read full article HERE
Data provided by VAERS analyst Janny Stokvis.
Note the increase in adverse event reporting from May to June. Over 300 more cases in one month’s time.