Nazha Saad, woman of influence helped thousands of homeless
By Marie Persson
Nazha Saad was named as one of Australia's Women of Influence by Westpac and The Australian Financial Review. She was a leader in the Australian community housing sector and was widely acknowledged as an innovator, activist and humanitarian. Before she became ill, Saad was CEO of St George Community Housing, providing accommodation for more than 8000 homeless people.
Saad was the daughter of Emile and Hasyby Saad, Lebanese immigrants who came to Australia with little to their name but their commitment to hard work and a hunger to succeed. Her family was a traditional one and it is testimony to Saad's determination and drive that she achieved so much in her short life.
Nazha Saad (centre), CEO of St George Community Housing, at a permaculture garden created by St George Community Housing for residents. (Jane Dyson)
To say Saad was a high achiever is to underplay her abilities. Wherever she was she shone. She was school captain at Burwood Public School and a prefect at Strathfield Girls High. As well as completing an executive course at Harvard Business School, Saad topped her MBA class. She trained with her brother Joseph for many years at the Australian Tae Kwon Do Academy and despite being an average swimmer – not that she would admit it – she attained her underwater divers licence.
Saad was fearless and not afraid to stand up to any sort of bias, prejudice or misogyny. As a senior executive in the NSW Public Service she didn't hold back. In one memorable incident, in a very public forum, she playfully (but with meaning) slapped the minister of the day on the arm when he made a sexist remark. There was a hushed silence until he laughed it off. He knew not to mess with her.
Nazha Saad, CEO of St George Community Housing, was a leader in the Australian community housing sector and was widely acknowledged as an innovator, activist and humanitarian. (Supplied Photo)
Ross MacRae was the great love of her life along with their poodle cross, Maddie. For many years she enjoyed sailing holidays in exotic places with MacRae and a small group of friends, despite suffering from appalling seasickness. Every morning she would take copious pills and disappear below. At the end of the day she was half carried onto a dock, a beach – anywhere that didn't rock. MacRae was always there for her at the end of the day.
Saad always said that she would like to have left this world having made it a better place for her sister, brothers, colleagues, friends and those less fortunate than her. She wanted to face whatever is next with her head held high, knowing she had lived a good life and had done her best.
She was beautiful and caring and lit up any room she entered. She was authentic, vulnerable, strong and wise. Throughout her life she united all who met her with her infectious personality and her ferocious commitment to social justice. She faced death as she faced life – with grace and gratitude, kindness, genuine curiosity, a sense of hopefulness and a concern that was always for others.
Nazha Saad is survived by MacRae, her mother Hasyby, her brothers Joseph and Richard and her sister Najette.
Fiona Richardson remembered as principled, passionate politician at state memorial
By state political reporter Richard Willingham
Video: Brunswick MP Jane Garrett gives an emotional tribute to her friend and colleague. (Fairfax Media: Joe Armao) (ABC News)
A treasured friend, a determined advocate, a formidable political operator and proud mother and partner is how Australia's first minister for the prevention of family violence has been remembered.
The state memorial for Fiona Richardson, who died last week aged 50, heard about her tenacious work ethic and care for her community and family.
Held at Northcote's Regal Ballroom, the venue that launched her 2014 defence of her seat, the room was packed beyond capacity by her family, friends, Labor colleagues and political rivals.
Realising a past of abuse When she was a minister, Fiona Richardson bravely revealed her own family's trauma at the hands of an abusive father.
Former prime minister Julia Gillard headed an impressive list of Labor luminaries and people from the wider Labor movement, including union bosses and former premiers.
Ms Richardson's close friend, Brunswick MP Jane Garrett, gave an emotional tribute detailing how Ms Richardson had helped her during own fight against breast cancer.
Ms Garrett recalled Ms Richardson bringing her a blanket when she was first diagnosed, and telling her to use it to be with her family to absorb all their smells and memories.
She later used it when she was in hospital, and Ms Richardson was buried in a similar blanket.
The Brunswick MP said in a political world where MPs spewed out thousands of words and scripted sound bites, Ms Richardson stood out for always speaking with brevity and wit.
: Former Victorian premier John Brumby and former prime minister Julia Gillard paid tribute to the MP. (Fairfax Media: Joe Armao)
And it was her words in her maiden speech that rang most true: that her greatest achievement was her partnership with husband Stephen Newnham the pair forming "a mighty couple" and her two children, Marcus and Catherine.
Her fierce intellect, compassion and blonde hair were all apparent in her children, Ms Garrett said.
"[She was] principled, brilliant, driven, passionate,'' she said.
: Fiona Richardson was remembered for giving a voice to those suffering family violence. (AAP: Mal Fairclough)
Former police chief commissioner Ken Lay said Ms Richardson was so many government departments' and agencies' favourite minister, and a woman who showed compassion and wit.
He said she would be remembered for giving a voice to those suffering injustice and a "trailblazer driven by a fierce determination for change".
"Mediocrity was not part of Fiona's vocabulary,'' he said.
Tears were shed as Imagine was sung to images of Ms Richardson with her family and friends.
Northcote High School principal Kate Morris remembered the inspiration, advice and advocacy efforts Ms Richardson provided to the community.
"She didn't always tell you what you wanted to hear, but she told what you needed to know,'' Ms Morris said.
: Politicians from all sides, including Federal Opposition Leader Bill Shorten, gathered for the service. (Fairfax Media: Joe Armao)
Her work ensuring that netball courts were built across Melbourne was highlighted for empowering women to active.
MC Steve Bracks told mourners that Ms Richardson wanted the memorial to be a celebration.
"And I'm not brave enough to cross Fiona,'' Mr Bracks said to laughter.
Ms Richardson was always political. She first entered politics when, at age nine, she protested against the dismissal of Gough Whitlam.
At 12, she became a vegetarian.
She met her husband, Mr Newnham, when the pair shared a coffee about how to resolve a Labor problem.
They quickly became a formidable duo. Mr Newnham is a former state secretary of the ALP.
: Fiona Richardson was remembered for her love of her family. (Fairfax Media: Joe Armao)
Throughout the tributes, Ms Richardson was remembered for her fearless work to eradicate family violence, but Mr Bracks also highlighted her tremendous work driving Labor's policy to remove 50 level crossings.
Mr Bracks proudly highlighted Ms Richardson's pivotal role in getting Ms Gillard preselected and helping her become Australia's first female prime minister.
Her work to get Bill Shorten, who attended with his wife Chloe, preselected for his seat was also acknowledged.
Other mourners included anti-violence campaigners Rosie Batty and Phil Cleary, the Labor state Cabinet and caucus, Liberal MPs and the crossbench.
Mr Lay ended his tribute with a simple message to Ms Richardson's grieving family: "Your partner and mum didn't observe history, she made history." ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Melbourne ~ Wednesday August 23 2017
Anti-domestic violence campaigner Rosie Batty pays tribute to Labor minister Fiona Richardson
By Melissa Cunningham Rosie Batty, former Australian of the year and family violence survivor, has paid tribute to the nation's first minister for the prevention of family violence, Fiona Richardson.
Ms Batty said Ms Richardson, who died on Wednesday afternoon after battling cancer, was a tireless campaigner who made it her mission to stand up for the safety of women and children.
Premier Daniel Andrews with Rosie Batty and Fiona Richardson in March 2016. (Eddie Jim ) She said, however, that the greatest gift Ms Richardson she gave to victims of family violence was hope.
"She not only gave victims a voice, but she gave them a voice in parliament and that was really such a unique thing," a grief-stricken Ms Batty said.
"She gave them hope things could change. She reached the hearts of politicians from both sides of politics. But what she really set out to achieve, was to make them understand that victims need to be part of the solution, that their stories are essential, that they can help inform the government, lead reforms and change society and the world."
But to Ms Batty, Ms Richardson more than just a politician, she was a friend, mentor and confidant who Ms Batty said was always there in difficult moments to offer comforting words or a hug.
"It was really hard in the earlier days, I just found myself sort of thrust into the public realm and you can feel quite alone, but she swept in, she understood, and she was such a huge support to me on my journey," Ms Batty said.
"She would always be so encouraging and filled with praise of me, almost like a proud mum. She really helped me to find the confidence to continue what I am doing."
Behind closed doors, Ms Richardson was a mighty-hearted woman, adored by her staff, and known for her many endearing quirks including walking around her office barefooted, Ms Batty said.
"She had all these wonderful elements, she was a very alternative type of person, she loved being barefooted," Ms Batty said.
"She was lovely, dynamic, fun and so very, very caring. There was no limit to her kindness."
Ms Batty said she would remember Ms Richardson as a formidable force who challenged the system and then helped rebuild it.
"Because of her own lived experiences she was passionate and she knew exactly what surivors needed," she said.
"We shared a mission and there was a deep trust between us and a deep appreciation."
Ms Batty said Ms Richardson's legacy would be her unwavering desire to change the lives of victims of family violence.
"She was somebody who had the confidence and the drive to dance to the beat of her own drum," Ms Batty said.
"She had the passion and confidence to challenge wherever she wanted to challenge and that's not always an easy thing to do, to confront people, to challenge our leaders to push to change the system.
"There are going to be so many people, including myself, who will make sure her vision continues and who will see through all she wanted to achieve but didn't live long enough to."
Domestic Violence Victoria chief executive Fiona McCormack said Ms Richardson had been a fearless advocate for women and children.
Ms McCormack said Ms Richardson had drawn on her painful experience to advocate for and empower survivors of family violence.
"This is such a huge loss," she said. "She wanted to work to create change, she dedicated her life to protecting women and children.
"Central to her effort was ensuring that the voice of survivors of family violence was at the heart of any reform, of any new systems or models of development.
"I can speak on behalf of the entire family sector in paying our condolences to her family when I say we are so terribly shocked and sad at the news, but that we're very grateful for the incredible work she undertook."
Rabh tribal women carry firewood in the Boko area of Kamrup (Rural) district in Assam. Low recorded work participation of women is often a reflection of the low status of women in society, since the huge amount of unpaid labour that they perform is simply not recognised. (Ritu Raj Konwar)
A salt pan near Ramanathapuram in Tamil Nadu. (L. Balachandar)
The promises that inspired the enthusiastic participation of women in the national movement have remained unfulfilled, as a deep and pervasive gender inequality, making the position of women inferior in Indian society, still persists.
By JAYATI GHOSH
WOMEN were significant participants in the national movement. Leaders such as Sarojini Naidu, Sucheta Kripalani, Kalpana Dutt Joshi, Bhikaji Cama and Aruna Asaf Ali became emblematic of the freedom struggle. But even more than their presence, there was widespread involvement of ordinary women from different walks of life in different regions. Many of them came out of their homes into “public life” for the first time, often inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, who made their participation an important part of his own political strategy of non-violent non-cooperation.
Inevitably, these women would have had their own notions of freedom: their goals would have been somewhat different from those of their male counterparts, and their expectations of living in a newly independent country must have been coloured by their very unequal and often oppressive social and economic circumstances. But it may still be safe to say that the writers of the Constitution did manage to encapsulate many of the hopes and dreams of the women of the time.
Consider what the Constitution offered: explicit recognition of equality before law and rejection of any kind of discrimination, including on grounds of gender, along with empowering the state to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women, to neutralise the cumulative socio-economic, educational and political disadvantages they faced. Article 16 promised equality of opportunity for all citizens (and, therefore, for all women) in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state; Article 39(a) noted that the state should direct its policy towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood; and Article 39(d) stressed equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Several other provisions took note of the need to provide dignity and empower women in various ways. Over time, other legislation banned traditional customs and practices that were clearly unjust and discriminatory, such as dowry and child marriage.
So far, so positive, and if these declarations had been mostly or even substantially fulfilled, the granddaughters of those millions of women of 1947 would today be living their dream. After all, seven decades is a reasonably long time in the life of a country, and should be more than enough to effect significant progress along the lines of the announced social contract. So how far have things actually changed for Indian women in this period?
Equality before law has certainly existed as a basic principle, but it has not been accompanied by equally just implementation; and both the letter of the law and its functioning have not conformed to the basic spirit of the Constitution. In the absence of a systematically codified set of laws recognising and providing remedies for various kinds of gender discrimination, women’s equality before law has had to be interpreted through case law, which has on occasion provided surprising and unfavourable outcomes. This has been true of the personal laws affecting marriage and divorce, as well as laws relating to inheritance and property. It is true that over the years various laws have been enacted for equal remuneration, maternity benefits for working women, rape, dowry deaths and the like. But it is also unfortunately true that these laws are still honoured mostly in the breach, and a sense of impunity still characterises many perpetrators of such crimes.
The workings of the criminal justice system, and indeed of the civil courts, are replete with instances of blatant gender discrimination that severely limit women’s access to justice, especially for women from poor and disadvantaged contexts. Meanwhile, the persistence and even increase in acts of violence against women may be partly a result of increased awareness and willingness of the survivors to go public, but the apparent increase in the brutality of such crimes suggests that other darker social forces may also be at work. Certainly, we must admit that in India, we are still very far from ensuring safe, free and just legal and social spaces for most women and girls to live, work and achieve their potential as creative and empowered human beings.
In terms of some of the most basic demographic indicators, there is obvious improvement. Average life expectancy at birth has more than doubled for women, from an estimated 32 years around 1950 to nearly 70 years today. In fact, women’s life expectancy at birth was actually lower than that for men until the late 1970s; thereafter it changed, with higher numbers for women. But women are known to have better survival chances than men, and the gap in India is still lower than in developed countries or even countries with similar per capita income.
Much of this decline in mortality rates is due to the decline in infant mortality rates, which have fallen from more than 150 per 1,000 live births in 1950 to around 40 in recent years. But gender gaps in neonatal mortality (before the age of one month) remain high, and have even increased slightly over the past decade.
Maternal mortality rates (MMR) have also fallen; they were estimated to be around 1,300 per 100,000 live births but are now around 170. This is certainly a big decline, but in fact it is not nearly big enough: India is one of the few countries to have failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of reducing maternal mortality by 75 per cent compared to its 1990 level, which would have implied an MMR (at the national level) of 103 at most. The country has the shameful distinction of accounting for the highest number of maternal deaths in the world (around 17 per cent), 10 times the number in China, even though China still has a larger population of women of child-bearing age.
This poor performance in maternal mortality is an indicator of broader failures that show that progress in improving the conditions and status of Indian women has been limited and uneven. Indeed, other human development indicators show the persistently low status of women and girls in society, which is then reflected in many related features. Death due to childbirth is often related not just to lack of adequate medical facilities and prenatal care, but also to poor nutrition. The relative paucity of proper and affordable health care is one of the big failures of Indian development, but it also has a strong gender dimension, with women, especially poorer women in rural and more backward areas, routinely denied access to these basic services, including for reproductive health.
Women and girl children in India continue to exhibit some of the worst nutritional outcomes, similar to or worse than some least developed countries where per capita incomes are much lower. The proportion of women with anaemia is nearly double the global average. This is obviously related not only to the aggregate insufficient calorie consumption among poor households, but to disparate intra-household consumption patterns, through which women and girl children eat less in terms of quantity and quality, not only because of deprivation but because of self-denial.
Another reason for high maternal mortality is early age at childbirth and this remains a persistent concern because of early marriage of girls. The average age at marriage has certainly gone up in India. Yet, even now 61 per cent of all women are married before the age of 16 and half of them have their first pregnancy before 19.2 years.
Sex ratio and son preference
Perhaps the demographic indicator that reveals most starkly the continued inferior position of women in Indian society is the sex ratio (the number of women per 1,000 men). Globally, the sex ratio stands at around 984. But in India, it was an abysmal 940 in 2011. What is even more shocking is that this sex ratio has actually deteriorated since Independence; it was estimated to be 946 in the 1951 Census. The ratio is worse in urban areas (926) than in rural areas (947) and typically lower in higher income locations and among upper castes compared with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The child sex ratio (for the age group 0-6 years) is even worse, and has fallen further from 927 in 2001 to 914 in 2011, pointing to the effects of the combination of son preference among families across the subcontinent and newly available technologies that have combined to prevent female births, and greater neglect of girl infants compared to boys in the early phases of life. Incidentally, son preference also casts a shadow on other institutions like marriage: data from the India Human Development Surveys reveal that women with no children or only daughters were twice as likely to face divorce or separation than women with only sons. Female literacy
Education appears to be one area of progress compared to 70 years ago, but here too the progress has been far too delayed, limited and slow, and indeed very poor compared to most developing countries. Female literacy rates have improved over the past decades, but at 65 per cent in 2011, they were still well below the global average of 80 per cent. Girls’ enrolment in primary education has improved significantly to be near-universal today, but around one-third of girls now in their teens and early 20s were never enrolled in schools. Dropout rates remain high and there are significant gender gaps in dropout, especially by the time the age of middle school is reached. Most surveys suggest that families find that schooling for girls beyond the most basic level is “not necessary” or “too expensive”, or that “the school is too far away”, while some simply claim that the child “is not interested”. The inability to ensure that every child receives full good-quality elementary education, despite all the grandiose promises made immediately after Independence, is shocking in any case, but it affects girls and young women severely.
But if all these were not proof enough of the deep and pervasive gender inequality that still persists in India, the evidence on employment must be clinching. India always had a very low recorded work participation rate for women by global standards, including when the first employment surveys were conducted in the early 1950s. Thereafter, successive surveys by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) have shown hardly any increase in these low rates, which have been marked by a depressing stability over the “socialist planning” as well as the neoliberal reforms phases of economic and social policy. But shockingly, for the most recent period for which such data are available, women’s work participation rates actually showed a significant decline from 28.2 per cent of women aged 15 years or more in 2004-05, to as low as 21.6 per cent in 2011-12. This was mostly because of a decline in the number of recorded rural women workers, particularly those classified as self-employed in agriculture.
This makes India truly unusual, possibly even unique, in both comparative terms as well as in historical terms. It is hard to think of any other society whose economy has apparently been growing rapidly for nearly three decades, where women’s work participation has not only not increased but actually fallen.
Various explanations have been offered for this, including rising real wages that have allowed women in poor households to avoid or reduce involvement in very physically arduous and demanding work with relatively low wages and instead focus more on “domestic duties”. There have also been arguments about the loss of access to common property resources that allowed women to work collecting plants and herbs, as well as mechanisation of agriculture that is paradoxically typically associated with women losing work once it becomes less physically demanding and arduous. In any case, there is the point that whatever occurred in agriculture, other forms of recognised employment for women in other sectors like industry and services simply did not increase enough to make a dent. Unpaid work
But there is another deeper point. Work, including paid and unpaid work, defines the conditions of human existence in fundamental ways. Social recognition and valuation of the work that is performed by different categories of people is an important reflection of the value that societies attach to the people who perform it. So, low recorded work participation of women is often a reflection of the low status of women in society, since the huge amount of unpaid labour that they perform is simply not recognised.
This is confirmed by the same NSSO surveys that recognise various categories of people who are described as “not in the labour force”. These include (in addition to those in educational institutions and those who are too old or sick to work) those engaged in what has been called social reproduction. Specifically, two categories are of relevance here: Code 92, which refers to those who attend to domestic duties in unpaid fashion within the home, and Code 93, covering those who attend to domestic duties and are also engaged in free collection of goods (vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle feed, etc.), sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for household use. It is obvious that these are all economic activities, and would be recognised as employment, if they led to any payment. But since they are unpaid, those who do such work are not even recognised as being productively employed.
Once these categories are included in the definition of work, then the picture changes dramatically. Firstly, instead of women’s participation rates being less than half those of men, they turn out to be higher (at 86.2 per cent, compared to 79.8 per cent for men). Secondly, there is less evidence of a significant decline in women’s work participation in recent times. Indeed, the decline in male work participation appears to be stronger than that for women, and both declines can then be explained dominantly by increasing involvement in education. So the basic shift in recent times has been the shift of women from paid or recognised employment to unpaid work. And most of this shift has been in Code 93, that is, women are forced to engage in various activities such as fetching firewood and water for household consumption, because of the failure of the state to provide basic infrastructure and amenities, in addition to the denial of adequate affordable care services.
This provides a huge, and unnoticed, subsidy to the economy, whereby the unsung contributions of women workers are critical in underwriting the very existence of society as well as the rapid output growth. But it also has adverse implications for those women who do engage in paid work. Where there is a large amount of unpaid work that is performed in a society and where the bulk of that is performed by women, the participation of women in paid work tends to be much more disadvantaged. Since the unpaid labour performed by women in “domestic duties” is not remunerated, and often not even recognised, it is easier for society to undervalue such work in general as well as other paid work performed by women. And this, in turn, leads to lower wages and worse working conditions, so the very existence of the unpaid-paid work continuum affects not only the bargaining power of paid women workers, but also social attitudes towards them and to their work, and indeed their own reservation wages and self-perception. So it is hardly surprising that the gender gap in wages in India is among the highest in the world and that women workers tend to be concentrated in the most low-paid, vulnerable and insecure jobs with poor working conditions.
This is not to say that conditions are so stark for all women in the country. There is a huge amount of diversity, not only across urban and rural areas but across different States, socio-cultural groups and income classes. And there has been substantial progress for particular groups of more privileged women and girls. But in a broader sense, the promises that inspired the enthusiastic participation of so many women in the national movement have remained unfulfilled.
The question then must be: why has this been the case? Some of this reflects deep patriarchal structures in Indian society, which combine with other forms of social discrimination and hierarchy (such as caste) to create complex inequalities that are not easy to change. But Indian capitalism has also relied on such inequality and used the segmented labour markets that it provides to benefit from cheaper labour and allow greater surplus extraction. That is why, even in the more recent phase of liberalised markets and rampant profit orientation, the system has continued to perpetuate, both explicitly and implicitly, some of the more egregious forms of gender discrimination.
Changing this requires much more than pious statements about women’s empowerment: it would require not just changes in mindset but a huge transformation in the approach to economic development and policies.
Betty Cuthbert: Four-time Olympic gold medallist an inspiration on and off the track
Raelene Boyle wheels MS-stricken Betty Cuthbert to the opening of the Sydney Olympics 2000
By Luke Pentony
Among the many tributes paid to Betty Cuthbert upon news of her death at age 79, a touching tweet from Cathy Freeman summed up how much she meant to Australian sport.
"Thank you for the inspirational memories, Betty Cuthbert," Freeman tweeted on Monday morning. "Rest in peace."
It is fitting for Cuthbert to be described as an inspiration, as that is what she was for not just Freeman and the likes of Raelene Boyle, but also the generations of Australian track and field athletes who followed in the wake of her illustrious career.
Cuthbert won four Olympic gold medals and remains the only athlete to have triumphed at the Games in the 100, 200 and 400 metres.
Across her career she set 16 world records in individual and relay events, having burst to prominence at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics as a shy 18-year-old from the north-west Sydney suburb of Ermington.
The image of her running with her mouth gaped wide open became synonymous with her victories in the 100 and 200m, and 4x100m relay, which earned her the title of 'Golden Girl'.
Perhaps Cuthbert's greatest achievement on the track, however, came eight years later at the Tokyo Olympics when she won her fourth gold in what was the debut of the women's 400m.
Between Melbourne and Tokyo, Cuthbert's career had been blighted by injury, which cruelled her attempts to defend her Olympic titles at the 1960 Rome Games, while she had also spent time in retirement before deciding to return to the sport.
Considered past her best by some at the age of 26, Cuthbert took victory in Tokyo in an Olympic record time of 52 seconds and her satisfaction was obvious.
"This was the hardest race of all," she told the media in Tokyo.
"In Melbourne, everything came easily to me, for I was much younger and things happened without my realising it.
"But I wanted this one more than anything."
Cuthbert's legacy recognised at Sydney Olympics Australia did not win another gold medal in the 400m until Freeman famously did so at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, only a week and a half after Cuthbert took part in the final stages of the torch relay.
The honour of lighting the cauldron was given to Freeman, but Cuthbert confined to a wheelchair at this stage of her life because of multiple sclerosis was among the celebration of Australia's female Olympic greats on that emotional night in Sydney.
Three-time Olympic sprint medallist Boyle assisted Cuthbert as she made her way around the Stadium Australia track and she later reflected on the significance of sharing that moment with one of her heroes.
"Betty was to become one of the athletes and women I most admired as I grew older," Boyle wrote in her 2003 autobiography, Raelene.
"To have enjoyed such a warm friendship with her over the years is something I cherish, along with memories of a certain night many years later when I had the opportunity to push her wheelchair into the spotlight that was one of the proudest moments in my life."
Even in retirement, Cuthbert proved to be an inspiring figure after being diagnosed with MS.
Majorie Jackson-Nelson, who won the Olympic 100-200m double at the Helsinki Games four years before Cuthbert's Melbourne heroics, was in awe of how bravely her close friend responded to the debilitating illness.
"When she was struck down with MS it was a bit of a blow to start with," Jackson-Nelson said on Monday. "But Betty, as strong as she was, took it in her stride like everything she did and it was a pleasure and a privilege to know Bett."
Cuthbert's achievements were recognised internationally in 2012 when she was among the first athletes inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame alongside other greats such as Jesse Owens, Carl Lewis and Sergei Bubka.
The Western Australian government has offered a state funeral, with Cuthbert having lived in Mandurah near Perth during her retirement.
Australian Olympic athletics champion Betty Cuthbert has died after a long battle with multiple sclerosis.
Cuthbert was a four-time Olympic gold medallist, winning three at the 1956 Melbourne games in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4x100 metres relay events.
Cuthbert, who also won gold in the 400 metres at the Tokyo Olympics eight years later, was a torch bearer at the opening ceremony for the Sydney Olympic Games.
Betty Cuthbert has died aged 79. (Anita Jones)
The daughter of nursery owners, Cuthbert was born in Merrylands in Sydney's west, attending Ermington Public School and Macarthur Girls High School where she developed an interest in athletics and an ambition to compete in the Olympics.
She made her Olympic debut at the 1956 Melbourne Games where she set a world record in the 200 metres.
She competed in the 1960 Rome Games but suffered an injury and was eliminated from the heats of the 100 metres, announcing her retirement from track and field shortly afterwards.
Betty Cuthbert competes at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. Photo: Supplied
Cuthbert made her comeback at the 1962 Commonwealth Games in Perth before going to the 1964 Tokyo Games where she won her fourth Olympic gold medal.
She remains the only Olympian to have won a gold medal in all sprint events, being the 100, 200 and 400 metres. Only Ian Thorpe has won more gold for Australia.
She first experienced symptoms of multiple sclerosis in 1969 and was diagnosed with the disease in 1974, spending much of her later life dedicated much of her life towards raising awareness about the condition.
Tributes poured in for Cuthbert on Monday morning, with Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull describing her as an inspiration.
Australian Olympic Committee president John Coates remembered Cuthbert as being brave in the face of adversity.
"Betty was the golden girl of the track and a national heroine," he said. "It's very sad to lose such a great champion. Betty battled her illness for many years and showed tremendous courage, but more importantly she always managed to smile."
Olympic athlete Cathy Freeman described Cuthbert as an inspiring force.
"It's a very sad day, there's no doubt about it," Freeman said. "Betty is an inspiration and her story will continue to inspire Australian athletes for generations to come. I'm so happy I got to meet such a tremendous and gracious role model, and Olympic champion."
Radio broadcaster Alan Jones also paid tribute to Cuthbert's athletic achievements.
Opposition Leader Bill Shorten tweeted that Cuthbert would always be a golden girl to Australians.
Peak body Athletics Australia extended sympathy to Cuthbert's friends and family.
Cuthbert was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 1985 with chairman John Bertrand remembering her as a great role model.
"Betty was a true inspiration and role model to all Australians," he said. "Her feats on the track bought together Australians as one. She loved the country and we loved her".
Cuthbert left NSW for Western Australia in 1991, settling in Mandurah south of Perth.
New Delhi: Nearly 103 million Indians living as on 1 March, 2011 were married as children, i.e. before reaching the age of 18, of this 85.2 million were girls, according to the report “Elimination of Child Marriage in India: Progress and Prospects” released by ActionAid India here today.
Girl child marriages account for 30.2 per cent of the currently married female population of the country and the elimination of this alone could add 5 per cent (or 27 million) more literate women and increase India’s GDP by 1.7 per cent. As per the report more than 30 per cent girl child marriages in the world occur in India. The prevalence rate of child marriages in our country is higher than that of several African countries including Somalia, Nigeria, Eritrea and Zambia, says the report brought out by Child Rights Focus, a knowledge activist initiative of ActionAid India.
While releasing the report Shabana Azmi, celebrated film actor, social worker and Chairperson of ActionAid India said, “Patriarchy is at the root of child marriage, and patriarchy has to be tackled completely to eliminate child marriage. Spreading education and building confidence amongst girls enables them to resist child marriage and chart their own lives.”
“Child marriage is not only a human rights or gender issue; it has serious consequences on India’s demographic, health, education and economic progress. Women are half of the population and if we cannot combat child marriage, it may increase extent of unhealthy and unskilled labour force that can be great hindrance to the economic prospects of the country which is aspiring to grow in double digits,” says Dr. Srinivas Goli, Assistance Professor, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi and the author of the report.
“The prevalence of child marriage can be seen across all social groups including in urban areas, thus a strict correlation cannot be drawn between low income, residing in backward areas and child marriage. The report shows that despite the reduction in the rate of child marriage the numbers are still high with more than 30 per cent being India’s share of girl child marriages in the world. Apart from strengthening the implementation of laws, it is also important to strengthen the agency of girls as well as boys to resist and eliminate child marriage.” says Sandeep Chachra, Executive Director, ActionAid India.
Editor’s Note ? India is Contributing 33 per cent of total child brides in the world. ? Child marriages in India (103 million) are more than the total population of Philippines (100 million) and Germany (80.68 million). ? In every hour, nearly 150 child marriages are occurring in India. ? Out of every 28 child marriages occurring per minute in the world, more than two take place in India. ? Elimination of Girl Child marriages can avoid 27,000 neonatal deaths, 55,000 infant deaths, 160,000 child deaths ? Elimination of Girl Child marriages can add 5per cent more literates (27 million women) 1.7 per cent and of GDP (accounts to nearly 1899.65 billion INR/ $29.22 billion) ***Ends**