and Anja Al-Erhayem (Vores Lykkes Fjender)
Denmark, 2006, 59 minutes, Color, VHS/DVD, Farsi, Pasthu, Subtitled
Order No. W07921
Scroll down for PBS interview with cinematographer Eva Mulvad and Malalai Joya, Afghan MP
"In September 2005, Afghanistan held its first parliamentary elections in 35 years. Among the candidates for 249 assembly seats was Malalai Joya, a courageous, controversial 27-year-old woman who had ignited outrage among hard-liners when she spoke out against corrupt warlords at the Grand Council of tribal elders in 2003. ENEMIES OF HAPPINESS is a revelatory portrait of this extraordinary freedom fighter and the way she won the hearts of voters, as well as a snapshot of life and politics in war-torn Afghanistan.
Amidst vivid, poetic images of Joya's dusty Farah Province, the film tracks the final weeks of her campaign, when death threats restrict her movements. But the parade of trusting constituents arriving on her doorstep leaves no doubt that Joya is a popular hero. Among her visitors is a 100-year-old woman who treks two hours to offer loyalty and herbal medicine. King Solomon-style, Joya acts as folk mediator and advocate, adjudicating between a wife and her violent, drug-addicted husband and counseling a family forced to marry off their adolescent daughter to a much older man. Protected by armed guards, Joya heads to poor rural areas to address crowds of women, pledging to be their voice and ‘expose the enemies of peace, women, and democracy.’ In the presence of her fierce tenacity, we can imagine the future of an enlightened nation.” - Caroline Libresco, Sundance Film Festival
AWARDS, FESTIVALS, & SCREENINGS
Sundance F F, World Cinema Prize: Documentary
Int’l Doc Fest Amsterdam (IDFA), Silver Wolf Award
Copenhagen Int’l Doc F F, Amnesty Award Nominee
Nestor Almendros Prize, Human Rights Watch F F
AWARDS, FESTIVALS, & SCREENINGS
Sundance F F, World Cinema Prize: Documentary
Int’l Doc Fest Amsterdam (IDFA), Silver Wolf Award
Copenhagen Int’l Doc F F, Amnesty Award Nominee
Nestor Almendros Prize, Human Rights Watch F F
Thessaloniki Documentary Festival, Greece
Toronto, Hot Docs Int. Documentary Festival
Göteborg Film Festival
Danish National Museum
Female Film Festival Malmö
Helsinki Doc Point Documentary Film Festival
Mexico City Int’l Contemporary Film Festival
One World Human Rights Film Festival, Czech Republic
True/False Film Festival
The Royal Film Commission of Jordan
Den europeiske dokumentarfilmfestivalen, Norway
Hong Kong International Film Festival
Sao Paulo It's All True Int. Documentary FF
Belfast Film Festival
Creteil, Festival Films De Femmes
Istanbul Int. Film Festival
Seoul Women's Film Festival
International Female Film Festival Malmö
München Documentary Festival, Germany
Amakula Kampala International Film Festival
Warsawa, Planete Doc Review, Poland
Jerusalem Int. Film Festival
“A political documentary with a difference…quietly celebrates its heroine's fierce determination to reform her country's attitude toward women.” Leslie Felperin Variety
“A powerful portrait…offers compelling evidence that it takes more than military might and diplomats to hold democratic elections in a country where few people know how to read or write and many say votes can be bought and sold.” Eva Novrup Redvall FILM #53
“Eloquent...Joya is a controversial voice for a nation ruined by war and ruled by tradition, and a voice with a desperate urge for change.” Göteborg Film Festival
“Carries the magic uplift of classic Hollywood and the considerable bonus of authenticity.” Rob Nelson Village Voice
“Incredible…a character so compelling you don't want the camera to turn away.” Brian Darr GreenCine Daily
This film is about personal courage courage to change the world and the courage to stand in the forefront of this battle.
Malalai Joya is a 28 year-old woman from Afghanistan. This film follows her parliamentary campaign to her election as a delegate in Wolesi Jirga, or National Assembly. It is the first democratic parliament election in Afghanistan in over 30 years. Surrounded by security, Malalai Joya spreads her political beliefs despite several death threats. There have been 4 attempts against her life.
Malalai Joya is famous and infamous. It all began in 2003, when the Afghanistan politicians met to lay the foundation for a democracy in “new” Afghanistan. At this meeting, Malalai Joya challenged former Mujahidin leaders (Warlords), who according to her, attempt to maintain power through the new system. “Many of you here in this hall have blood on your hands and you should be tried in the world court.” Her comments ignited outrage among the hard-liners who demanded that she be immediately removed from the sessions.
It is her courage and conviction which has made her into a folk hero. But since that fateful day, her life has been in danger. She has been threatened by the very same warlords she challenges. Her campaign becomes a life-threatening project. She is forced to live in hiding and when she is in public, she must be protected by armed guards.
In the Desert
Malalai Joya conducts her parliamentary campaign in the remote desert province of Farah, the heart of poverty in Afghanistan. To be a politician means that one’s office must function as a social security office and even a hospital. She is the advocate of her people. They come to her with an assortment of problems. Women who wear black crowd the corriders. The dust settles heavily in the sunlight. It is here where she negotiates with clan leaders and opium kings. Adolescent girls cry because they must marry with the old men.
This film gives a unique insight into the conditions the people of Afghanistan must live. It is a society destroyed by war and run by a tradition. But despite this, there is also a strong longing to change. But how can democracy be implemented in a land where the people are illiterate? In a land where votes can be bought and where women do not have the luxury to leave their children so that they can vote? It is a film that reminds us that democracy can not be implemented merely by the presence of western diplomats and soldiers.
Malalai Joya is no diplomat. She is a controversial front figure for a people who have been promised peace and prosperity, but who continue to dogged by war and poverty. Her uncompromising stance creates hope among a people who demand amends from history’s greatest perpertrators.
But even heroes have their critics: there are those who accuse her for creating even more discord in a land that is already rife with conflict.
The Enemy of Happiness follows a radical freedom fighter and a land that is changing. But more importantly it is a film on personal courage and the belief that the ordinary person not only can, but will make a difference.
March 2 2007
NOW Transcript - Show 309 Enemies of Happiness
DAVID BRANCACCIO: Welcome to NOW.
We saw Dick Cheney escape injury in Afghanistan this week when a bomb exploded at the military base where the vice president was spending the night. 23 people died.
The incident underscored the resurgence of the Taliban five years after the U.S. deposed the regime.
But I want to ask for a few moments of your time to meet an extraordinary pair of women who have another vivid and important story to tell about Afghanistan.
First, there's Malalai Joya, a daring young Afghan woman who has made it her life calling to denounce the country's warlords as criminals and thievesand get elected to Parliament to do something about their power. Death threats haven't stopped her.
And then there's Danish filmmaker Eva Mulvad. She traveled to a dangerous town in southern Afghanistan to bring back the story first hand. Mulvad's film "Enemies of Happiness" won the World Cinema Jury Award for Documentaries at the Sundance film festival in January.
BRANCACCIO: Eva, welcome.
MULVAD: Thank you very much.
BRANCACCIO: You shot most of your film not in the Afghan capital of Kabul, but way to the far off west in this town called Farah. Tell me what it's like getting to and working in a place like that.
MULVAD: It is very, very difficult to get there. It'svery remote province in Afghanistan. Andwhen I came from Denmark toAfghanistan, I didn't really know if it was possible to get out there. We couldn't find out before. And when we got to Kabul, we triedvery hard to find a way to get out there.
BRANCACCIO: You can't just drive.
MULVAD: No. We thought we could fly to a bigger city that was North of this place, and drive. But they'rethey're growing Poppies around this area and
BRANCACCIO: Poppies that make heroin.
BRANCACCIO: So they don't want ya coming through there.
MULVAD: No. It means there is a lot of money there, a lot of weapons to drive through. So we tried to find out if we could fly to the main town of Farah. Which is controlled by American troops and people say it's pretty secure. But there are no planes going there. And we justalmost gave up, until we found some Danish soldiers who had a cargo military plane going there. And we charmed ourselves into that plane and right away we got out there.
BRANCACCIO: When you got there, did you find it to be a place where the rule of law was held and it was very safe?
MULVAD: The city, in fact was pretty safe. It was patrolled bysoldiers. American soldiers. And we justmade, like, this arrangement with ourselves and we promised ourselves not toto go out of town. Becausewe didn't know how dangerous it would be. So we just stayed and town. And luckily, Malalai Joya, our main character, did the same. She's not moving too much around. So we didn't have to go out of town.
BRANCACCIO: The film, "Enemies Of Happiness," revolves around Malalai Joya, and her campaign for Parliament. And it is my understanding she is known as one of the most famous women in Afghanistan based upon hera moment that she had in a precursor to the Parliament. A traditional assembly in Afghanistan known as The Loya Jirga. What did she do?
MULVAD: She did something that was considered very impolite in Afghanistan. But also very brave. She stood up, a young girl at this time, she was 26, I think. She stood up against the Warlords and she demanded them to be putto court, for all of the crimes they had committed.
BRANCACCIO: There's actually tape of this. Let's take a look.
JOYA: Why would you allow criminals to be present at this Loya Jirga? War lords responsible for our country's situation. Afghanistan is the center for national and international conflicts. They oppress women and have ruined our country. They should be prosecuted. They might be forgiven by the Afghan people, but not by history.
SPEAKER: Sit down! Sit down! The sister has crossed the line of what is considered common courtesy. She is banished from this assembly and cannot return. Send her out! Guards, throw her out!
BRANCACCIO: Well, that was a watershed moment probably for Afghanistan. Certainly for Malalai Joya. It earned her the support of many people but also, it's my understanding, earned her enemies.
MULVAD: Yeah, a lot of enemies. Since thisshe has been living undercover, and she's been protected by 12 bodyguards most of the time.
BRANCACCIO: She has, like, a director of security.
MULVAD: Yeah. Her uncle is her director of security. And she saidthey had tried to kill her four times. So it's not like just a rumor. It is something that could happen.
BRANCACCIO: And that's completely changed her life. Take a look at just how she lives her life.
JOYA: We don't have much time. I must get away from here. The house is no longer safe. Some neighbors have contacted... So it's best that I leave the houseand go to another. Although I hate the burka I am forced to wear it myself. Greetings my Uncle. Kiss your children for me.
BRANCACCIO: So this unusual campaign under these strange circumstances in which Malalai Joya herself often can't even announce in advance that she's going to show up to give maybe a speech. So, how does she get around that?
MULVAD: Well, she has her bodyguards, and they try toto help her out. And she alsoLike you see in the film, she does some campaign with tapes, that they drive around town with a loudspeaker and give out a message.
BRANCACCIO: She records herher speech on a cassette tape, and then they can actuallyIt's almost like a kind of simple form of aof a radio campaign ad.
MULVAD: Yeah, sheshe also has a short TV speech which she gives to the people. They can see her that way.
BRANCACCIO: So she has to lay low and keep an eye out for people who wish her harm. People who are often armed-to-the-teeth. How do you conduct a political campaign under that kind ofthose conditions?
MULVAD: It's of courseof course difficult. And it's different from what our politicians do. Butpeople know about Malalai Joya, and they come to her. She has like a secure area in town where there are soldiers in both ends of the street. And people come to her andand she stays there, and theythey talk to her about like politics, saying they want to support her.
BRANCACCIO: She really does provoke, as a good politician shoulda lot of support in some people. There's this one woman who comes from a long distance on foot.
MULVAD: Yeah. She's a funny character. But sheshe'sa very strong woman. She's been fighting against the Russians when they occupied Afghanistan. And she comes all the way just to tell Malalai Joya that she wants to vote for her.
WOMAN: It's a two hour walk. I walked all the way over here. I have come because of you.
BRANCACCIO: That's a long way just to say I'll support you.
MULVAD: Yeah. But I think thata lot of people in Afghanistan, they alsoare really hoping for changes. And if they find someone like Malalai Joya that they trust then they wanna show her their support.
BRANCACCIO: But is Malalai Joya a woman's candidate. Is itis it mainly women who support her?
MULVAD: No, it's both men and women. Anda lot of people that see this film, they're actually surprised that so many men, also oldolder men, they come and they support her.
I think sometimes we have a very black and whitelike understanding about how it is in the Muslim countries. We think that women are only supported by women and men are very hostile. It's not like that. There are some men who are very modernin their way of thinking. And they are supporting the candidate that they like. And it doesn't matter if they're a man or a woman.
BRANCACCIO: And it's important to be clear, right, Eva, that Malalai Joya is a pious Muslim. It's not that she's rejecting her religion.
MULVAD: No. No. Not at all. She's aa believer and she prays. And to her there's no difference betweenlike being a Muslim andand having the rights thatlike is provided by democracy. And equal rights between men and women.
BRANCACCIO: So she tries to find this place where youcan embrace Islam. She can embrace Islam. But where she can make the case to go beyond some traditional practices that she thinks are destructive.
MULVAD: Yeah. That's what she tries to do. Like she tries to separateIslam from the tradition in some way. The tradition, somehow, keeps people into ways of acting that can be very destructive. In the film they discuss aa young woman who is going to be married to an old man. And it's very difficult to solve this question, because it'sit's not question ofofwhether he wants her or whether he's in love with her. But it's a question of pride for him.
BRANCACCIO: Well, this girl is in the 5th Grade. Her name is Rahela. And she goes into consult Malalai Joya who, in addition for being a candidate for Parliament, seems to be almost like aa kind of advocate for family issues.
JOYA: Rahela, you are a brave girl. You don't normally cry. We're with you. You must be strong or you will break. Talk to me, I know you need to unburden your heart.
BRANCACCIO: Young Rahela gets promised as the wife of this local big shot in town who already has wives, is decades older than her. She's clearly upset about this. And even her parents, her father doesn't like the situation. He feels hishis hands areareare tied. But you see Malalai Joya in this role as almost a mediator.
MULVAD: Yeah, she tries toget these things solved, butbut it's very, very difficult, because it has to do with tradition. And it's very difficult to change these kind of things.
BRANCACCIO: Matters of honor in society. You can't justIfIf something's been promised to you, you can't just say, "That's okay."
MULVAD: To me, it's very important that we also get to hear this story from the side of the bad guy, because all the time, we feel itit's really, really a bad story and thisit's so difficult for Rahela. I really understand what she's going through.
But we also need to try to understand thethe story from the side ofof the old man who wants to marry her.
JOYA: My advice to you is to save the girl from a poor destiny, for she is not willing to marry you
KAHN: 99 people come to me and mock me "Are you still waiting for that girl?" MY brothers and my clan threaten me. If I don't get married we can't stay here in Farah
MULVAD: In the Afghan tradition, it is very important for him to marry her, 'cuz it has been promised. And if he gives up marrying her, people are gonna laugh. He's gonna be a fool inin the village, and he can't stand that.
And what Malalai Joya tries to do is to say, "But you have the power, you can give up this young girl, 'cuz you're the powerful one." And in the end, he says, "But I can't." But that's what she tries to do. She tries to make people understand that they can change tradition.
BRANCACCIO: But in the end, she doesn't actually have to marry him.
MULVAD: No, that's aa story after the film finishes. HeThere's a lot of things going on. The filmfamily brings in an uncle, trying to solve the situation. Shirin Khan kills that uncle. He goes to jail for that crime, but he pays himself out again. And now the last things wewe have heard from Afghanistan is that Rahela and her family has run to Iran to hide there.
BRANCACCIO: They fled to the adjacent country.
MULVAD: Yeah. To seekLike toto get out of the situation, they had to leave Afghanistan.
BRANCACCIO: But when you see Malalai Joya trying to do her best toto enlighten people, to bring sides together, to come up with some prescription for justice, what does it tell you about the importance of women in leadership roles in a place like Afghanistan?
MULVAD: I think it's important in every country to have someone who takes a stand, like kind of a freedom fighter or front figure. In this particular where there is people so uneducated, they're very poor, she's a great inspiration to a lot of women. She shows that it's possible to change things and that women can be very powerful.
BRANCACCIO: What lessons do you draw about democracy in Afghanistan based on your experience there?
MULVAD: I think it's very, very difficult overnight to fly in democracy in a country like this, but what I felt from being there was that people were very eager to change things. Like normal people really wanted to live a better life. And one of the things that they tried to do was to try to vote for people who wanted to take Afghanistan in that direction, to give more freedom to people and to try to provide security and health systems and stuff like that, the basic things that everyone needs.
BRANCACCIO: So does all this campaigning work for Malalai Joya?
MULVAD: Yeah, it actually did. She was elected with the second-most votes in her proprovince, so it was aa real victory for her.
BRANCACCIO: So there's where your film ends. She wins. But she's since moved to the Afghan capital, Kabul, where the new Parliament sits. And late this week, we got some email questions to Malalai Joya herself. And she sent her responses to us which we have posted in their entirety over on the PBS.org web site.
When we asked her a question, essentially "How are things going," and she responded in part that things are going terribly. She writes (quote) "The voice of me and a number of other democratic-minded members of Parliament is not heard, and we are not given time to speak." My microphone has been cut off a number of times when I criticize the situation and want to express my point of view. Once they even physically attacked me inside the Parliament and one of them called (quote) 'Take and rape this prostitute.' A shocking state of affairs for a Parliament that the Western community had so promoted in the wake of the war.
MULVAD: Well, it just shows that nothing has really changed. Like in the beginning of the filmyou see that her microphone is turned off one ofin one of the meetings that leads up to the Parliamentary election. And it still goes on inside of the Parliament. And it'sdifficult for Malalai Joya raise her voice because what she says is reallypowerful and provoking.
BRANCACCIO: She writes, "I think that no nation can donate liberation to another nation. Liberation is not money to be donated. It should be achieved in a country by the people themselves." The ongoing developments in Afghanistan and Iraq prove this claim.
MULVAD: What she says is that we kind of support the bad guys being very powerful in Afghanistan now. And she often says that democracy's just another word for power. So nothing has changed really. Like itit is a change that she has aa seat in Parliament, but so many of the other seats have been taken by people who are responsible for all the crimes that have been committed in Afghanistan during the past years.
BRANCACCIO: But she questions the motives of the United States and other Western nations. She says that Afghanistan in their view, she believes, is part of some sort of international strategic chess game, and not about the Afghan people. That's what her responses seem to suggest.
MULVAD: But if you look upon the living condition for normal people in Afghanistan, it has notnothing has changed to the better. It's worse now, security-wise, and that's what she is criticizing.
these people may not be in Parliamentto improve the living conditions for the Afghan people but more to secure themselves. And that is what Malalai Joya has been fighting against. She wants these peopleput to international or national courts.
BRANCACCIO: It's such a tough conundrum, though, because if you wipe out the entire existing power structure, who will rule the country? The threat is some sort of anarchy of perhaps the sort we see in Iraq.
MULVAD: That's alsoa point of view that you have to consider. A lot of people say that Malalai Joya's too radical. Andthat she kind ofcould start up a new civil war in Afghanistan 'cause there are a lot of ethnic groups fighting against each other. And you have to consider that these people in Parliamentthe warlordsthey are also elected by some people who support them
And if you want to take away their guns and put them to jail it's gonna cause a lot of riots too. So there's no easy solution to this.
BRANCACCIO: She expresses a kind of contradiction about whether or not it's worth it really to be in Parliament. She says no. But then she talks about "At least it gives me a platform" to speak out against the injustice as she sees it.
MULVAD: I think it's important that she's there, even though the democracy's not a democracy as we know it. I think it's a beginning, and maybe in ten years or 15 years, it's gonna be a little bit different. But it's not liberation. It's not democracy as we know it now.
BRANCACCIO: Well, Eva Mulvad, director of "Enemies of Happiness," thank you very much.
MULVAD: Thank you.
BRANCACCIO: This is the time when many public television stations are asking for your support. We at NOW could not bring you brave voices like Eva Mulvad Now is the time to give generously to support your local public television station. And that's it for NOW. From New York, I'm David Brancaccio. We'll see you next week.