London ~~ Tuesday July 10 2007
Catholics fear Pope's revival of traditional ways
By Peter Popham in Rome
Benedict XVI decked in gold, Easter 2007
Pope Benedict XVI faces uproar among liberal Catholics amid signs that he is trying to turn back the clock on an era of modernisation and reform.
From today, the Church wakes up to a new set of rules regarding the way in which the Mass may be celebrated. For the first time since 1962 the Tridentine Mass, the form of the service always said in Latin, will be permitted.
It is the Pope's personal effort to heal a rift created when the followers of French Archbishop Lefèbvre rebelled, and insisted on continuing the use the Mass introduced at the Council of Trent in the 16th century.
But even before the publication of the new rules the intensity of opposition has shaken the Church. One bishop interviewed by La Repubblica said the day the Pope's letter was published confirming the reform was "the saddest day of my life".
The Pope has confirmed that the existing form of the Mass, dating from the Second Vatican Council of the 1960s, will continue to be the standard one, said in the language of the local congregation.
But many liberal Catholics see the return of a Mass which, in the form in which it was used until 1962, stigmatised "heretics", "schismatics" and Jews and which presented the Catholic Church as the only true version of the faith, as a reckless step backwards.
And when they review the changes Benedict has brought to the papal wardrobe, they see a pattern. Ever since his installation in April 2005, the German Pope has been speeding back to the future.
The magnificent papal wardrobe has been steadily modified since Vatican II. Pope Paul VI symbolically laid his splendid tiara on the altar of St Peter's at the end of the council; it was sold and the proceeds donated to charity. Benedict has yet to buy it back, but he has repeatedly stunned Vaticanologists with the variety of archaic hats, capes and other adornments he chooses to sport.
In his first winter as Pope he donned the snug, Santa Claus-like "camauro" hat, red velvet with a border of white ermine, which had not been worn since John XXIII, who died in 1963. He also affected the "galero", a cowboy-like number in red, and the "greca", the ankle-length cashmere overcoat last worn by Pope Pius XII. He has also moved to restore some of the dignity of the Pope sacrificed by his predecessors in the interests of humility and conciliation. Benedict has been photographed seated in the little-used golden throne in the Vatican's Sala Paolina, where Pius XII used to receive important visitors on their knees.
London ~~ Sunday July 8 2007
Pope's move on Latin mass 'a blow to Jews'
Jason Burke in Paris
Jewish leaders and community groups criticised Pope Benedict XVI strongly yesterday after the head of the Roman Catholic Church formally removed restrictions on celebrating an old form of the Latin mass which includes prayers calling for the Jews to 'be delivered from their darkness' and converted to Catholicism.
In a highly controversial concession to traditionalist Catholics, Pope Benedict said that he had decided to allow parish priests to celebrate the Latin Tridentine mass if a 'stable group of faithful' request it - though he stressed that he was in no way undoing the reforms of the Sixties Second Vatican Council which allowed the mass to be said in vernacular languages for the first time.
'What earlier generations held as sacred remains sacred and great for us too, and it cannot be all of a sudden entirely forbidden or even considered harmful,' Benedict wrote.
However, the older rite's prayers calling on God to 'lift the veil from the eyes' of the Jews and to end 'the blindness of that people so that they may acknowledge the light of your truth, which is Christ' - used just once a year during the Good Friday service - have sparked outrage.
Yesterday the Anti-Defamation League, the American-based Jewish advocacy group, called the papal decision a 'body blow to Catholic-Jewish relations'.
'We are extremely disappointed and deeply offended that nearly 40 years after the Vatican rightly removed insulting anti-Jewish language from the Good Friday mass, it would now permit Catholics to utter such hurtful and insulting words by praying for Jews to be converted,' said Abraham Foxman, the group's national director, in Rome. 'It is the wrong decision at the wrong time. It appears the Vatican has chosen to satisfy a right-wing faction in the church that rejects change and reconciliation.'
Some bishops in France as well as liberal clergy and Catholics elsewhere have expressed concerns that allowing freer use of the Tridentine liturgy would imply a negation of Vatican II, the 1962-65 meetings that modernised the Roman Catholic Church. They also feared it could create divisions in parishes, since two different liturgies would be celebrated.
The liberal French Catholic magazine Temoignage Chretien published an editorial in Latin explaining that it was not concerned about the language in which the mass was celebrated but by 'the view of the outside world held by most supporters of the traditional rite ... of a church that sees itself as the sole holder of the truth. Forty years after the Second Vatican Council, this stand is untenable'.
Benedict has told bishops that such fears are 'unfounded' as the mass celebrated in the vernacular remained the 'normal' form while the older version was an 'extraordinary' one that would probably be sought by relatively few Catholics.
The Vatican spokesman, the Rev Federico Lombardi, said the new rules did not 'impose any return to the past, nor any weakening of the authority of the council, nor the authority and responsibility of bishops'.
Benedict was acting in a bid to reach out to the followers of an excommunicated French ultra-traditionalist, the late Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who split with the Vatican over the introduction of the new mass and other Vatican II reforms. The Vatican excommunicated him in 1988 after he consecrated four bishops without Rome's consent. The bishops were excommunicated as well.
Benedict has been keen to reach a reconciliation with Lefebvre's group, the Society of St Pius X, which has demanded freer use of the old mass as a precondition for normalising relations. It also demands the removal of the excommunication decrees. The group said in a statement that it rejoiced over the document and thanked the pope for it.
In one small village in western France, a church was recently occupied by Catholic traditionalists demanding a mass in Latin. A new priest, who succeeded a conservative who had served the community of 300 for 40 years, had been ordered by the local bishop to end the unauthorised but previously tolerated older rites, sparking a sit-in. Mathieu Mautin, 30, said that for him the older rite 'was very important in [his] life'.
'I want my children to enjoy it too,' Mautin said. 'The liturgy creates a universe that makes the mystery palpable. The fact that the priest faces the altar signifies for us that he is leading the people of God.'
Pope Benedict, who was elected in April 2005, has provoked emotional reaction from other faiths on a number of occasions. He apologised in September last year for offending Muslims after quoting a 14th-century Byzantine emperor who said: 'Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.'
The Pope also sparked bewilderment when he made no mention of anti-Semitism, or the fact that the Nazis killed millions of people because they were Jewish, in a speech last year at Auschwitz. He also failed to acknowledge that there might be some degree of collective responsibility of the German people.
Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut
No More Mr. Nice Pope
by Andrew Walsh
It has taken two years, but the tough-talking conservative many initially expected Pope Benedict XVI would be has finally appeared on the scene. In July, he issued one statement asking Catholic bishops to make a 16th-century form of the Mass much more accessible to the faithful and another asserting than non-Catholic forms of Christianity are essentially defective.
Most of the attention was grabbed by Benedict’s motu proprio, or personal statement, on July 7, which “authorized wider use of the long-marginalized Latin Mass, a move that delighted Roman Catholic traditionalists, but worried others who fear the erosion of important church reforms,” Tracy Wilkinson and Rebecca Trounson of the Los Angeles Times reported on July 8.
“What earlier generations held as sacred remains sacred and great for us too, and it cannot be all of a sudden entirely forbidden or even considered harmful,” the pope wrote in his decree, referring to the Latin form of the Mass approved by Council of Trent in 1570. It was the universal form of the Roman rite until it was replaced in the late 1960s, after the Second Vatican Council, by a revised “New Order” Mass that is typically celebrated in the local vernacular language, rather than Latin.
Until July, it required the special permission of a bishop to celebrate the Tridentine Mass. Now any Catholic priest is authorized to celebrate it privately or publicly to a “stable” group of interested Catholics.
The delight evidenced by many traditional Catholics was easy to findit bubbled up across the nation in news accounts. “It’s lifted a stigma, almost like being freed,” Al Huntz, president of the Buffalo chapter of Una Voce, an international organization promoting the Latin Mass, told Jay Tokasz of the Buffalo News in August. “For a good many years there’s been a misconception that the Latin Mass and the people who attend were some kind of fringe group.”
“My good friends, we are living through and a part of a major, fundamental, awesome reaffirmation of the tradition of our faith,” the Rev. Robert C. Pasley, rector of Mater Ecclesiae Catholic Church outside Philadelphia told his congregation a few days after the pope issued the decree. The parish, reported David O’Reilly of the Philadelphia Inquirer, was one of a handful in the nation that already celebrated all of its services in the “graceful, dignified, formal and obscure” Latin of the old Tridentine rite.
There was a sharp difference in tone between the American and the European coverage of the pope’s decision.
In the United States, typical headlines were the Buffalo News’ “Rebirth of the Latin Mass: major changes unlikely for most area Catholics,” and the Worcester Telegram & Gazette’s “Pope’s OK of Mass has officials studying. Shift to Latin involves more than language.” In Grand Rapids, the word was: “Latin Mass performed at Sacred Heart. Local clergy doubt old tradition will spread.”
In Europe, where many Catholic bishops openly opposed the return of the Tridentine Mass,” the decision was portrayed as far more dramatic.
“Liberal Catholics in Turmoil Over Vatican’s Proposal for Latin Mass,” read a Financial Times headline. “Theo-Con Pope Tries to Force Us All Back to the Middle Ages,” asserted the headline on an Irish Independent column. “Pope Defies His Bishops and Clears the Way for Latin Mass to Return” blared London’s Daily Mail.
“Church Split Feared as Pope backs return of ‘anti-Semitic’ Latin Mass” the Independent of London headlined the story. (The “anti-Semitic” referred to the unwarranted belief that bringing back the Tridentine Mass would entail bringing back a prayer for “the perfidious Jews” in the pre-Vatican II Easter service.)
A columnist for the Irish Independent wrote on July 30 of attending one Dublin Tridentine Mass. “It was grim, joyless, interminable and disquieting. There was no music. Nobody shook hands or brought gifts to the altar. It was as exuberant a celebration of creation as an expired fly left to rot on a window sill.”
The European reaction was explicable, in part, by that fact that the old Mass figures prominently in a contemporary French schism over the legitimacy of the reforms of Vatican II. In consequence, the rite had been almost completely unavailable in European Catholic churches before the decree. (The pope himself allowed only one Tridentine Mass in Rome a week.)
By contrast, Americans live in a country where the Tridentine mass has been celebrated in many cities since 1984, when Pope John Paul II gave bishops permission to authorize local celebrations. And American reporters filed dozens of stories about the small, enthusiastic communities where the Tridentine Mass has been offered regularly: 150 worshipers in Albuquerque, 250 in Boston, 650 in Pittsburgh, maybe 600 families in Buffalo, 80 or 90 in South Bend, and so on.
Reporters found that these clusters of worshipers loved the spiritual and aesthetic quality of the Tridentine Mass and its evocation of a magisterial Catholicism. “It’s the Mass of the church, of always,” Robert Caraballo told Mary Warner of the Harrisburg Patriot News. “People dress properly.”
Many of the stories, like Warner’s, noted that the traditional service appealed to some younger Catholics who don’t like the contemporary feel of the New Order Mass. “The music is more rock ‘n’ roll. They use hymns contrary to Catholic teaching,” 28-year-old Tyler Kauffman said.
In places like Mater Ecclesiae Parish in the New Jersey suburbs of Philadelphia, which has grown from 70 families to 520 since 2000, dioceses are using the Tridentine Mass as part of a growth strategy. The Inquirer’s O’Reilly reported that the parish’s Sunday noon mass is always a sung, High Massa very rare phenomenonwith a procession of three priests, 12 altar boys in black cassocks and white surplices, 12 white-clad girls of the Blessed Imelda society, and Gregorian chant.
But most American stories indicated that bishops expected little or no additional demand for Tridentine Masses. “I don’t see it as being a huge thing in New Mexico, because people are pretty well settled with Mass in English and like Mass in English,” Archbishop Michael J. Sheehan of Santa Fe told Debra Dominguez-Lund of the Albuquerque Journal on July 30.
Sheehan also cited the most important obstacle to a rapid expansion of the Tridentine Mass. “The diocese has very few priests who know Latin, and those few who know it well enough are so elderly that they “don’t have the knees to make the 18 genuflections” that the Tridentine Mass requires of a priest.
But optimistic advocates of the Latin Mass are mobilizing. Julia Duin of the Washington Times reported July 30 that two Catholic religious orders are now training priests in the Tridentine rite, the Institute of Christ the King and the Pennsylvania-based Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter, which offers summer workshops for groups of 50 priests who want to master the ritual demands of the old rite.
“It’s a detailed liturgy, so there’s a lot of books and videos needed to teach a priest how to say this Mass,” the Rev. Carl Gismondi of the Fraternity said. “There’s something about it that’s very attractive to people. It’s more than nostalgia because a lot of young people are interested in it.”
Duin found two suburban Virginia parishes actively preparing to begin Tridentine Masses and dispatching priests for training. “In the older rite, worshipers must kneel to receive Communion on their tongues, the priest always leads the parishioners in facing east, rather than facing them; and the rite is always in Latin,” Duin wrote. “There are other differences in terms of liturgy, priestly vestments and the manner in which laity participate in the service.”
“Logistically, I think the challenge for priests who want to say Mass is to get the missal [the text and instructions for celebrating the Tridentine Mass], vestments and plan for working with a modern sanctuary,” the Rev. Franklin McAfee of St. John’s Catholic Church in McLean told Duin. “Altar boys need to be trained, and men need to learn Gregorian chant. There’s a ton of work for parishes with a priest who wants a Mass.”
Over on the liberal side, there was strong suspicion that the revival of the Tridentine Mass was part of a long-running campaign on Benedict’s part, dating back to his years as Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, to redefine Vatican II and to suppress or extrude dissent within the church.
Lawrence Downes demonstrated that conservatives aren’t the only ones who have emotional reactions to the Mass in his New York Times column on July 29 about attending a Tridentine Mass for the first timehe is 42.
First, Downes was stuck by the atmosphere of the Chicago church he visited. “I went up the steps of the Renaissance Baroque church, through a stone door and back into my dimmest memories. Amid the grandeur of beeswax candles and golden statuary, the congregation was saying the rosary. I sat behind an older couple wearing scapulars as big as credit cards. I saw women wearing lace mantillas and a clutch of seminarians in the front rows, in black cassocks and crisp white surplices.”
Then, by the silence. “At a Low Mass, the priest prays silently or unamplified. The people do not speak or sing. They watch and read. All around me, people’s heads were buried in thick black missals.”
As he sat self-consciously in the church, Downes felt “shaken and irrationally angry. Catholics are told that the church is the people of God, but from my silent pew, the people seemed irrelevant. The Mass belonged to Father and his altar boys....For the first time, I understood viscerally how some Catholics felt in the 60s when the Mass they loved went away.”
He noted that he understood that the pope wants to use the old Latin Mass to re-energize the church, to use it “like an immense celestial object” that “will exert gravitational pull on the faithful.” But from where he sits, that won’t be the result.
“It’s easy enough to see where this is going,” he concluded. “Same God, same church, but separate camps, each with an affinity for vernacular or Latin, John XXXIII or Benedict XVI. Smart, devout, ambitious Catholicsecclesial young Republicans, home-schoolers, seminarians and other shock troops of the faithwith have their mass. The rest of usa lumpy assortment of cafeteria Catholics, guilty parents, peace-‘n’-justice lefties, stubborn Vatican II die-hardswill have ours. We’ll have to prod our snoozing pew mates when to sit and stand; they’ll have to rein in their zealots.”
William Acquario wrote the Albany Times-Union to say that he hoped that in future Tridentine Masses in that region would include a mandate “that the sermon/homily at such Masses also be in Latin. That way the ‘mystique’ of the service would be complete.”
Catholic leaders in the United States generally downplayed the divisive potential of the pope’s decision to make the Tridentine Mass more widely available.
Cardinal Sean O’Malley of Boston told the Boston Globe that the pope had told him personally that worship in Latin will continue to be the exception, not the rule.
“There are some conservatives who feel that everything ended with the [Second Vatican] Council, and some liberals who think that everything began with the Council, and this Holy Father is trying to say that this is a continuous growth, that it’s the same church, and that we must try to avoid allowing the liturgy to become a battleground rather than a point of unification and communion for believers,” he told the Globe’s Michael Paulson on July 8.
John Allen, everyone’s favorite Vaticanologist, has been writing repeatedly that the ruling on the Mass doesn’t indicate much about the intentions of the pope. Conservatives can’t point to widespread unhappiness with the vernacular Mass and those worried about a “systematic rollback” of Vatican II are also making arguments based on “selective perception,” Allen wrote in a column published in the International Herald Tribune on May 31.
“Benedict certainly wants to call the church back to some Catholic fundamentals,” Allen wrote. But “this is the same pope who scandalized Catholic traditionalists by jettisoning limbo and praying alongside the grand mufti of Istanbul inside the Blue Mosque in Turkey.”
But other church watchers are more inclined to see Benedict chipping away at the liberal interpretation of Vatican II. Robert Marquand of the Christian Science Monitor, writing on July 18, found Benedict to be “completing a significant theological shift of the Roman Catholic churcha sweeping change that not only eclipses 40 years of a more moderate and collegial Catholicism, but seeks to reassert the spiritual supremacy of the Vatican and more openly proclaim the authority of the pope among all Christians.”
Papal biographer David Gibson, in a New York Times op-ed published on April 23, on the second anniversary of the pope’s election, also judged that Benedict was finally showing his hand as a forceful conservative. The pope, Gibson noted, was more than willing to use the Tridentine Mass to make gestures of conciliation to ultra-traditional and even schismatic Catholics, but went out of his way this spring to censure an elderly and infirm liberation theologian, Jesuit priest Jon Sobrino, who narrowly escaped assassination by death squads in El Salvador during the 1980s.
Those who have seen the emergence of the old conservative got some more evidence as the pope turned his attention to an external audience with his second major utterance in July. The Vatican issued a blunt document clarifying what Benedict considers to be (according to the Los Angles Times’ Rebecca Trounson) “mistaken interpretations of the Second Vatican Council, in this case involving non-Catholic Christians.”
On July 14, Trounson reported that the Vatican had “reasserted its position that Roman Catholicism provides the only true path to salvation and that other Christian denominations suffer from ‘defects’ or are not true churches.”
The statement, which was personally approved by Benedict, declares that Protestants belong only to “Christian communities” and not authentic churches. Orthodox Christians, because they share so much historically and theologically with the Catholic Church, can be considered to belong to valid churches, but these churches that are nonetheless fundamentally defective because they do not recognize the leadership of the papacy.
Ian Fisher of the New York Times reported laconically that “it was unclear why the Vatican issued the document now, especially since it largely restated earlier, if contentious, statements of church doctrine. The document from 2000 called ‘Dominus Iesus’ prompted angry reactions from other faiths which accused the Vatican, and (then) Cardinal Ratzinger specifically, of being unnecessarily divisive.”
Similar protests were reported almost immediately. Reuters quoted the head of Germany’s Evangelical Church as saying the document “effectively downgraded the Protestant churches and would make ecumenical relations more difficult.” He called the document a repetition of the “offensive statements” of 2000.
“It makes us question whether we are indeed praying together for Christian Unity,” the World Alliance of Reformed Churches grumbled.
Once again, in the United States, religious professionals took a cooler approach. The Minneapolis Star Tribune’s July 11 story on the document carried the headline, “Benedict asserts church’s primacy; Many turned the other cheek to the pope’s proclamation.”
Asked by reporter Jeff Stickler whether the document was “fightin’ words,” the Rev. Barbara Anne Keely, associate professor of Christian education and congregational spirituality at the United Theological Seminary outside Minneapolis replied, “This is who they’ve always been…I was raised Irish Catholic. That’s what I was taught then, and that’s what they teach now.”
Out in Salt Lake City, the Mormon Church took the news from Rome philosophically. “We are neither offended nor concerned when other faith traditions assert their authority,” Scott Trotter, a spokesman for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints told Jessica Ravitz of the Salt Lake Tribune on July 13. “As stated in our 11th Article of Faith: `We claim the privilege of worshipping Almighty God according to the dictates of our conscience, and allow all men the same privilege, let them worship how, where, or what they may.”
Utah’s Episcopal bishop, Carolyn Tanner Irish, on the other hand, called the document “disappointing and regressive,” and wondered why Benedict would want to issue comments that “will not help our efforts to find common ground and move forward together.”
Irish’s sentiments were echoed in the Pacific Northwest, where Steve Maynard of the Tacoma News Tribune found that local religious leaders were buzzing over the pope’s statement and interested in protecting that region’s strong local culture of ecumenical cooperation.
“Protestants are not the only ones shocked, dismayed and hurt by the Vatican’s statement,” the Rev. David Alger of the Tacoma’s Associated Ministries told Maynard. “A lot of Catholics are deeply troubled and are struggling with what this means.”
In retrospect, the Pope spent most of his first two years in office creating a positive and pastoral atmosphere. As David Gibson put it: “In his pronouncements and writings, [the pope] carefully accentuated the positive. His first encyclical was titled ‘God Is Love,’ and charity has become the recurring byword of his apparently irenic pontificate. Christianity, Catholicism, isn’t a collection of prohibitions: it’s a positive option, as Benedict said last year.”
Nevertheless, the real Benedict has a harder edge, which is now making itself clear. As Gibson somewhat reluctantly concluded, “[E]ven as he has preached the boundless grace of Christian charity, Benedict has also made it clear that divine love does not allow for compromise on matters of truth as the pope sees it, and that he will not brook anything that smacks of change in church teachings or traditions. Nor is he a caretaker pope who is willing to stand pat.”
As things cash out, it seems, Benedict has not traded in his cardinal’s bad cop role to be the Good Cop Pope. Instead, he wants to play both roles at the same time.